conscientious objector


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conscientious objector,

person who, on the grounds of conscience, resists the authority of the state to compel military service. Such resistance, emerging in time of war, may be based on membership in a pacifistic religious sect, such as the Society of FriendsFriends, Religious Society of,
religious body originating in England in the middle of the 17th cent. under George Fox. The members are commonly called Quakers, originally a term of derision.
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 (Quakers), the DukhoborsDukhobors
or Doukhobors
[Russ.,=spirit wrestlers], religious group, prominent in Russia from the 18th to the 19th cent. The name was coined by the Orthodox opponents of the Dukhobors, who had originally called themselves Christians of the Universal Brotherhood.
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, or Jehovah's WitnessesJehovah's Witnesses,
Christian group originating in the United States at the end of the 19th cent., organized by Charles Taze Russell, whose doctrine centers on the Second Coming of Christ.
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, or on personal religious or humanitarian convictions. Political opposition to the particular aim of conscription, such as that maintained by the CopperheadsCopperheads,
in the American Civil War, a reproachful term for those Northerners sympathetic to the South, mostly Democrats outspoken in their opposition to the Lincoln administration. They were especially strong in Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio, where Clement L.
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 during the Civil War, by radical groups during World War I and, to a more limited extent, during World War II, and by large numbers during the Vietnam War, is usually considered in a separate category. The problem of conscientious objectors, although present in different forms since the beginning of the Christian era, became acute in World Wars I and II because of the urgent demands for manpower of the warring governments. The United States and Great Britain allowed members of recognized pacifistic religious groups to substitute for combat service: (1) noncombatant military service, (2) nonmilitary activity related to the war effort, or (3) activity considered socially valuable. Pacifists without recognized claim to exemption were liable to harsher treatment, and about 5,000 conscientious objectors were imprisoned in the United States between 1940 and 1945. The postwar Selective Service Act, passed in 1948 and amended in 1951, required that conscientious objection be based on religious belief and training that included belief in a Supreme Being. In 1970 the Supreme Court removed the religious requirement and allowed objection based on a deeply held and coherent ethical system with no reference to a Supreme Being. In 1971 the Supreme Court refused to allow objection to a particular war, a decision affecting thousands of objectors to the Vietnam War. Some 50,000–100,000 men are estimated to have left the United States to avoid being drafted to serve in that war.

Bibliography

See G. C. Field, Pacifism and Conscientious Objection (1945); M. Q. Sibley and P. E. Jacob, Conscription of Conscience (1952, repr. 1965); L. Schlissel, ed., Conscience in America (1968); G. C. Zahn, War, Conscience, and Dissent (1967); M. Ferber and S. Lynd, The Resistance (1971).

References in periodicals archive ?
World War II was the first time that conscientious objectors were approved for any reason besides organized religion," McQuiddy said.
In the United States, the increase in the number of applicants for conscientious objector status in the military as well as public resistance to war in general "led to the beginning of the AVF: All-Volunteer Armed Force" (Chambers, 1993).
whose then existing creed or principles forbid its members to participate in war in any form" were granted conscientious objector status.
United States when it held the appellant, who specifically characterized his belief as non-religious, qualified for conscientious objector status within the same statutory exemption of "religious training and belief.
The question of conscientious objectors presented a dilemma for those who in principle honored the rights of individual conscience, yet in practice eagerly carried out their patriotic duties of supporting the war effort.
This experience, coupled with the discovery that the recruiter had lied about his being able to avoid Vietnam, serves to rekindle Daly's resolve to assert his conscientious objector status in an effort to get a discharge.
His application to be registered as a Conscientious Objector was backed by letters, including one from a councillor, who wrote: "Mr Hannan is a man of irreproachable character and high moral convictions.
However, he initially registered as a conscientious objector and always aimed for the wings of enemy planes to give his foe the greatest chance of survival.
Leading Medical Adviser Michael Lyons, 25, told a court martial he was a conscientious objector and would not handle the SA80.
Lyons, who joined the Navy in 2005, had already applied for conscientious objector status when he was ordered to undertake rifle training.
Army to deny Muslim soldier, Naser Abdo's request for conscientious objector status, accusing him of 'treason' and urging the military to punish him to the full extent of the Uniform Code of Military Justice.
The sutras of Abu Ghraib; notes from a conscientious objector.