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Related to conscription: Conscription Act of 1863


compulsory enrollment of personnel for service in the armed forces. Obligatory service in the armed forces has existed since ancient times in many cultures, including the samuraisamurai
, knights of feudal Japan, retainers of the daimyo. This aristocratic warrior class arose during the 12th-century wars between the Taira and Minamoto clans and was consolidated in the Tokugawa period.
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 in Japan, warriors in the Aztec Empire, citizen militiamen in ancient Greece and Rome, and aristocrats and their peasants or yeomen during the Middle Ages in Europe. In England, compulsory military service was employed on the local level in the Anglo-Saxon fyrd as early as the 9th cent. In the 16th cent. MachiavelliMachiavelli, Niccolò
, 1469–1527, Italian author and statesman, one of the outstanding figures of the Renaissance, b. Florence. Life

A member of the impoverished branch of a distinguished family, he entered (1498) the political service of the
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 argued that every able-bodied man in a nation was a potential soldier and could by means of conscription be required to serve in the armed forces. Conscription in the modern sense of the term dates from 1793, when the Convention of the French Republic raised an army of 300,000 men from the provinces. A few years later, conscription enabled Napoleon INapoleon I
, 1769–1821, emperor of the French, b. Ajaccio, Corsica, known as "the Little Corporal." Early Life

The son of Carlo and Letizia Bonaparte (or Buonaparte; see under Bonaparte, family), young Napoleon was sent (1779) to French military schools at
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 to build his tremendous fighting forces. Following Napoleon's example, Muhammad Ali of Egypt raised a powerful army in the 1830s. Compulsory peacetime recruitment was introduced (1811–12) by Prussia. Mass armies, raised at little cost by conscription, completely changed the scale of battle by the time of the Napoleonic Wars. The institution of conscription, which was increasingly justified by statesmen on grounds of national defense and economic stimulation, spread to other European nations and Japan in the 19th cent. At the outbreak of World War I, Great Britain adopted conscription and used it again in World War II; it was abolished in 1962. Though little used in the United States prior to the Civil War, conscription was used by both sides in that war and in most large-scale U.S. wars since, often with great controversy. Most of the important military powers of the 20th cent. have used conscription to raise their armed forces. China, because of its large population, has a policy of selective conscription. Impressmentimpressment,
forcible enrollment of recruits for military duty. Before the establishment of conscription, many countries supplemented their militia and mercenary troops by impressment.
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 is the forcible mustering of recruits. It lacks the scope and bureaucratic form of conscription. Many countries throughout the world, such as Israel, have mandatory military service; a few allow for alternate civilian service or release for conscientious objectorsconscientious objector,
person who, on the grounds of conscience, resists the authority of the state to compel military service. Such resistance, emerging in time of war, may be based on membership in a pacifistic religious sect, such as the Society of Friends (Quakers), the
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. See also selective serviceselective service,
in U.S. history, term for conscription.

Conscription was established (1863) in the U.S. Civil War, but proved unpopular (see draft riots). The law authorized release from service to anyone who furnished a substitute and, at first, to those who paid $300.
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a method of troop recruitment based on universal military service. This system was in force in France in the late 18th century and the 19th.

During the French Revolution the Convention decreed in August 1793 the compulsory mass levy into the army of all Frenchmen between the ages of 18 and 40, the first places to be filled by bachelors and childless men between the ages of 18 and 25. In 1798 a universal six-year military obligation became the law in France under the name of conscription. Originally military service was considered an inescapable personal responsibility, and no one could take anyone else’s place. But by 1800 provisions were made to make the system less strict so that replacements could serve for the conscripts and exemptions could be bought. Military service thus became obligatory but not personal. Conscription was in effect in France until 1872 and in Russia (only for residents of Poland) from 1815 to 1874. In the second half of the 19th century conscription was replaced by universal military service.


References in periodicals archive ?
The party's critics in the Kurdish community fume that the PYD engages in regime-like practices, such as forcing people to fight in an unpopular war, while the conscription policy is compounding the misery by emptying Kurdish-majority areas of their civilian populations.
This is not to mention the fact that for all his emphasis on conscription, Bacevich does little to counter his known opposition.
The widespread resistance to Nadaf's program and Israeli efforts to increase military conscription haven't stopped Benjamin Netanyahu's government from further attempting to divide the Palestinian minority along sectarian lines.
Fathy voiced similar concerns, stating: "Obligatory conscription robs us from our natural rights in freedom of body, choice, movement, expressing opinions and beliefs.
He said anyone found avoiding the conscription will have Article No.
If the political forces that led to ending conscription are fairly clear, what about the forces of sociotechnical change leading the military toward the development and adoption of new military and security technologies, from drones to cy-berweapons to increasingly autonomous vehicles and robots that put military personnel increasingly far from the action?
There were several proposals for conscription in the War of 1812.
One of the participants, Jessey Blue Forest, said: "So, the purpose of our walk is calling for one freedom in America that we don't have and that's calling walking for the freedom to be able to choose peace and there is a possibility of our government and its laws calling military conscription again which is a form of slavery and the walk that I am walking is to calling for a national non-violent movement to bring the end to the military draft to our constitutional means.
Chapter nine deals with the reaction and mass protests after the British announced its intention to extend conscription to Ireland.
KUWAIT, April 28 (KUNA) -- Parliamentary committee on interior and defense affairs discussed on Sunday a draft law on conscription in the presence of Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Defense Sheikh Ahmad Al-Khaled Al-Hamad Al-Sabah.
I have divided the talk into three parts; the first traces out the rise of Britishness as a definition of cultural community in Australia and the Irish Catholic response to it; the second looks at the divisions which arose around conscription 1916-18; and the question of loyalty, and the third examines the Irish Catholic support for the Sinn Fein in the 1919-1921 Anglo-Irish war and the reaction of the 'loyalists'.