When solving and plotting the above six quadratic equations with their solutions, the parabola is shifted upwards as a result of increasing the

constant term in the quadratic equation and the two real solutions of the quadratic equations get closer to each other in value until they equal each other at x = 2.

The estimated

constant term (a) is found by entering =INDEX(LINEST(C2:C13,B2:B13),2) into a different cell.

More specifically, we regress inflation (measured by core PCE inflation), the unemployment rate, and our measure of the shadow rate on a

constant term and lagged values of inflation, the unemployment rate, and the shadow rate.

2](t) except their

constant terms are non-negative so that each of them has a unique zero in (0, [infinity]).

Figures 1-3 show data in both current and

constant terms.

For simplicity, we only consider the computation overhead for generating a polynomial, restoring the

constant term of a polynomial by using Lagrange interpolation, and computing the modular multiplicative inverse of L.

While there may be no directional derivatives from the

constant term, we could also equivalently model this as orthogonal vectors with the sum of 0.

This can be explained by the fact that the even leading terms do not have a

constant term but only sinusoidal functions which converge faster than the

constant term.

k] [right arrow] R is a quadratic polynomial with no

constant term, i.

Letting the vector X represent some additional explanatory variables including a

constant term, the linear DD model appears as follows:

Daily series; sample period January 3, 2000--August 7, 2009 Variables [down arrow] Czech Republic Poland Conditional mean equation (coefficient x 100)

Constant term -6.

In this case the differential formula (3) is linear, for which the explicit solution is modeled by a

constant term plus a transient term [12] which can be under damped (u), critically damped (c) , or over damped (o) .