where the summations are over all variables save for the

constant term and [X.

denotes the

constant term of the full expansion of L as a Laurent series in [t.

For all the break dates, the intercept dummy was not statistically different from zero, which is consistent with the absence of a change in the

constant term of the policy rule.

To prove that the HLDDs are not equivalent is possible also by only comparing

constant terms of the polynomial.

A new OL-FL equation was developed by using a mathematical smoothing method based on an allometric equation with a

constant term.

The Augmented Dickey-Fuller test is carded out for testing the null hypothesis of unit root autoregressive model with no drift in onion price series against the alternative hypothesis of stationary autoregressive model with

constant term.

Analysis of the statistical dewatering data of the earlier period (up to 1980) using Equation (3) yields a positive

constant term, which is fully logical.

The fixed effects specification in column 2 is the most straightforward way to account for the existence of differences across countries in the

constant term of the equation.

where [DELTA] is the first-difference operator, [phi] and [theta] are polynomials in the lag operator L, [epsilon] is an error term, and [mu] is a

constant term.

where SSR = regression sum of squares, SST = total sum of squares, n = number of observations, K = number of explanatory variables plus a

constant term, Q = number of explanatory variables plus a

constant term, and Q > K.

2) This measure of error utilizes the

constant term from the regression, which is equivalent to using an average spread.

Some specific

constant term variables for certain lakes and seasons also are introduced into the model specification.