Contemplation

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Contemplation

 

a sensory stage of knowledge.

In the idealist tradition of philosophy, there are two basic conceptions of contemplation, both directly related to the notion of intuition. One interpretation originated with Plato, who regarded contemplation as the extrasensory knowledge of ideas and the basis of “true” knowledge. The other interpretation was developed by Kant, who juxtaposed contemplation to both thought and sensations and treated it as the concept of a single object, the concept which is to undergo categorization in cognition. E. Husserl’s phenomenology considers both types of contemplation: empirical contemplation, or consciousness of a particular object, and eidetic contemplation, the object of which is essence (eidos).

Pre-Marxist materialism interpreted cognition as contemplation, a passive process of perceiving the external world, which acts on the sense organs. K. Marx wrote: “The chief defect of all previous materialism—that of Feuerbach included—is that things, reality, sensuousness are conceived only in the form of the object, or of contemplation, but not as human sensuous activity or practice, not subjectively” (in K. Marx and F. Engels, Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 3, p. 1).

Marxism has shown that cognition is not passive contemplation but an activity inextricably linked with transforming the world.

Contemplation

Compleat Angler, The
Izaak Walton’s classic treatise on the Contemplative Man’s Recreation. [Br. Lit.: The Compleat Angler]
Thinker, The
sculpture by Rodin, depicting contemplative man. [Fr. Art: Osborne, 988]
References in periodicals archive ?
To cite a few "refreshing" examples, the first selection in the Contemplations volume is "Barncleupedie (with apologies to Erik Satie)" by James MacMillan.
German-born Musicologist and concert pianist Siglind Bruhn presents Messiaen's Contemplations of Covenant and Incarnation: Musical Symbols of Faith in the Two Great Piano Cycles of the 1940s, a scholarly, hermeneutic analysis of two spiritually motivated instrumental compositions by renowned composer Olivier Messiaen (1908-1992): "Visions de l'Amen" for two pianos (1943) and "Vingt Regards sur l'Enfant-Jesus" for piano solo (1944).
Cullen, veteran narrator of many Blackstone books, maintains a mild, professorial tone appropriate to Thoreau's contemplations.
Adam Rudolph's Moving Pictures: Contemplations (Meta Records 002)
Phillip Damien, Hani, Frankie Knuckles, Brinsley Evans, and Hex Hector all complement Cardwell's classy contemplations with aural settings worthy of her worldly-wise sophistication.
Chapters address Hatcher's Bahai response to classic passages justifying God in Plato's "The Republic", The Book of Job, Boethius' "Consolation of Philosophy", and Milton's "Pardise Lost"; recommendations of physical reality "prenatal exercises for our second birth"; contemplations on Divine Sustenance and the Bahai concept of afterlife; and much more.