Braille

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Braille

(brāl), in astronomy, a small asteroidasteroid,
 planetoid,
or minor planet,
small body orbiting the sun. More than 300,000 asteroids have been identified and cataloged; more than a million are believed to exist in the main belt between Mars and Jupiter, with many more in the Kuiper belt
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 notable because it has the same atypical geologic composition as the larger asteroid VestaVesta
, in astronomy, the fourth asteroid to be discovered. It was found in 1807 by H. Olbers. It is the third largest asteroid in size, with a diameter of c.326 mi (525 km). Its average distance from the sun is 2.36 astronomical units, and the period of its orbit is 1,325 days.
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. In 1999 the space probe Deep Space 1 passed within 16 mi (26 km) of Braille's surface, the closest flyby ever of an asteroid. Braille measures only 1.3 mi (2.1 km) by 0.6 mi (1 km). Its orbit is highly elliptical; its periapsis, or closest point to the sun, being midway between earth and Mars, and its apoapsis, or furthest point from the sun, is more than three times further from the sun than the earth is. In addition, much of Braille's orbit is a considerable distance above or below the ecliptic, the plane in which the planets circle the sun. Because of its orbit and geologic composition, it has been suggested that Braille was torn from Vesta, which has a huge crater, as the result of Vesta's collision with another celestial body.

Braille

[brāl]
(communications)
A system of written communication for the blind in which letters are represented by raised dots over which the trained blind person moves the fingertips.

Braille

Louis . 1809--52, French inventor, musician, and teacher of the blind, who himself was blind from the age of three and who devised the Braille system of raised writing

braille

(human language)
/breyl/ (Often capitalised) A class of writing systems, intended for use by blind and low-vision users, which express glyphs as raised dots. Currently employed braille standards use eight dots per cell, where a cell is a glyph-space two dots across by four dots high; most glyphs use only the top six dots.

Braille was developed by Louis Braille (pronounced /looy bray/) in France in the 1820s. Braille systems for most languages can be fairly trivially converted to and from the usual script.

Braille has several totally coincidental parallels with digital computing: it is binary, it is based on groups of eight bits/dots and its development began in the 1820s, at the same time Charles Babbage proposed the Difference Engine.

Computers output Braille on braille displays and braille printers for hard copy.

British Royal National Institute for the Blind.
References in periodicals archive ?
In support of the above testimonies, those who completed Hadley's alphabetic and contracted braille courses for professionals in the blindness field reported increased competence in braille writing and reading six months after completing the Hadley courses in all three fiscal years; see Table 2 (Gilson, 2011, 2012, 2014).
Despite the meager budgets of nonprofit agencies, school districts, and rehabilitation entities in recent years, the tuition-free alphabetic and contracted braille courses offered by Hadley serve an important population segment within the blindness field as well as the blindness community (that is, people who are blind or visually impaired).
Table 1 Survey response attrition rates for alphabetic and contracted braille courses for fiscal years 2010 to 2011, 2011 to 2012, and 2012 to 2013.
Writing: It is extremely important that a beginning teacher of braille be able to write single sentences of approximately 10 words in contracted braille with a Perkins brailler with no more than one error.
Reading: It is extremely important that a beginning teacher of braille be able to read aloud a passage of approximately 200 words using elementarylevel vocabulary written in contracted braille with no more than one error.
Reading: It is extremely important that a beginning teacher of braille be able to proofread (that is, find errors) a passage of approximately 200 words using elementary-level vocabulary written in contracted braille with no more than one error.
Reading: It is extremely important that a beginning teacher of braille be able to interline (write the print for) a passage of approximately 200 words using elementary-level vocabulary written in contracted braille with no more than one error.
Reading: It is extremely important that a beginning teacher of braille be able to interline (write the print for) a passage of approximately 200 words using high school-level vocabulary written in contracted braille with no more than one error.
Reading: With a one-page reference sheet available, it is extremely important that a beginning teacher of braille be able to proofread (that is, find errors in) a passage of approximately 200 words using high school-level vocabulary written in contracted braille.
However, despite the value they placed on literacy and braille, less than 10% of the parents reported that they were proficient enough to read contracted braille.
Many of these parents also indicated that they knew some contracted braille.
Effective teaching strategies: Case studies from the Alphabetic Braille and Contracted Braille Study.