enema

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Related to contrast enema: barium enema

enema

Med
1. the introduction of liquid into the rectum to evacuate the bowels, medicate, or nourish
2. the liquid so introduced

Enema

 

the injection of fluids into the rectum through the anus in order to clear the intestine of retained stool or to administer medicinal liquids or diagnostic agents.

Enemas are classified as purgative, laxative, medicinal, and diagnostic. Purgative, or evacuative, enemas involve the injection of 1–1.5 liters of water or soap solution at 25–30°C in order to stimulate peristalsis by irritating the intestinal mucosa and to soften a hard stool. A variation of the purgative enema is the siphon enema, in which a half-liter or liter of water is injected repeatedly and rhythmically by the siphon principle. The siphon enema is used with intestinal pareses to promote the restoration of peristalsis. Laxative enemas involve the injection of 50–200 ml of vegetable oil or 50–100 ml of a hypertonic solution of table salt, magnesium sulfate, and sodium sulfate; it is used when strain is undesirable in evacuating the bowels. Medicinal enemas involve the introduction of medicinal substances to act directly on the intestinal mucosa or to be absorbed through the intestinal walls (for example, in cases of intractable vomiting). Proctoclysis, or the rectal drip method, is used when the introduction of large quantities of fluid into the body is necessary (fluid injected by drops being better absorbed). The injection of glucose solution or physiological saline by enema is extremely uncommon. Diagnostic enemas involve the introduction of contrastive substances for subsequent X-ray examination.

enema

[′en·ə·mə]
(medicine)
A rectal injection of liquid for therapeutic, diagnostic, or nutritive purposes.
References in periodicals archive ?
Contrast enema failed to reveal a transition zone in 9 out of 27 (33%) patients.
4% (104/109) of their cases of rectosigmoid Hirschsprung disease had a definite radiologic transition zone on the contrast enema.
To further evaluate neonates with a distal bowel obstruction, a contrast enema should be performed.
Both IA and TA can present with distal bowel obstruction in the neonate and microcolon on contrast enema.
Contrast enema for pediatric intussusception: Is reflux into the terminal ileum necessary for complete reduction?
In patients with suspected bowel perforation or peritonitis, barium enemas can be life-threatening and water-soluble contrast enemas should be used to confirm the diagnosis.
Contrast enema or multiplanar CT can reveal a beak-like configuration defining the point of obstruction.
It also showed that a contrast enema is more useful in comparison than plain radiograph but contrast enema was not performed in the study.
The acute contrast enema in suspected large bowel obstruction: Value and technique Clinical Radiology.
In most institutions, a contrast enema remains the standard for diagnosis and initial treatment.
Curiously, contrast enemas are only moderately sensitive, (8) with detection rates of 70%, and a preliminary accurate diagnosis of cancer of only 40%.