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in psychology: see defense mechanismdefense mechanism,
in psychoanalysis, any of a variety of unconscious personality reactions which the ego uses to protect the conscious mind from threatening feelings and perceptions.
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; hysteriahysteria
, in psychology, a disorder commonly known today as conversion disorder, in which a psychological conflict is converted into a bodily disturbance. It is distinguished from hypochondria by the fact that its sufferers do not generally confuse their condition with real,
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In adaptive reuse, change of use of a property, such as from a railroad station to a commercial facility.



in linguistics, the formation of a new word from the transition of a given stem into another inflectional paradigm. For example, Russian pech’, “oven,” and pech’ “to bake,” and English love and (to) love are different parts of speech; in spite of external similarity, the base word and its derivative are different words, and the semantic relations between them may be diverse. The productivity of conversion is limited by the lexical significance of the stem and the structural peculiarities of the word.


Smirnitskii, A. I. Leksikologiia angliiskogo iazyka. Moscow, 1956. Pages 71–101.



in logic, the transformation of a sentence by changing the positions of its terms, the subject and predicate.

A conversion is said to be simple if quantifiers do not change when the sentence is converted. All negative propositions of the type “No S is P” and all particular affirmatives of the type “Some S are P” are converted simply. Universal affirmatives of the type “All S are P” are converted by limitation—that is, their conversions yield, generally speaking, a true sentence if the quantifier “all” is replaced by the quantifier “some.” Particular affirmatives of the type “Some S are not P” are not convertible: “Some smokers are not people” does not follow from “Some people do not smoke.”

In traditional logic, conversions were regarded as immediate inferences, which were placed in a special group. The rules governing them were formulated parallel’to the rules of syllogism. In modern predicate logic, conversion does not have independent meaning, and the rules of conversion per se are not included in the rules of logical deduction. This does not, however, diminish the heuristic value of conversion in logical thinking.

In the logic of relations, where every relation between the terms x and y has a corresponding concept about the relation between the terms y and x (the converse concept of the original relation), conversion involves replacing a given relation with its converse relation, while simultaneously transposing the terms of the relation.




in metallurgy, the treatment of metals that results in changes of chemical composition, physical and mechanical properties, and aggregation state; either all or some of these parameters may undergo a change. The first conversion is the production of pig iron from iron ore in blast furnaces; the second is the production of steel from pig iron; and the third is the working of metals by pressure to produce metallic articles of the desired shapes and sizes. Rolling, pressing, forging, and stamping are the basic types of pressure working. The fourth conversion is the aftertreatment of rolled metals; the term can refer to cold-rolling of strip and sheet metals, to profiling of strips, to sizing, and to drawing, as well as to the application of protective coatings and the production of metal ware.


(computer science)
Change of a compound from one isomeric form to another.
(chemical engineering)
The chemical change from reactants to products in an industrial chemical process. Also known as chemical conversion.
Determination of the rhumb-line direction of one point from another when the initial great-circle direction is known, or vice versa, the difference between the two directions being the conversion angle; used in connection with radio bearings, Consol, Consolan, and in great-circle sailing.
(nuclear physics)
Nuclear transformation of a fertile substance into a fissile substance.
(petroleum engineering)
Treatment of a drilling mud to alter its chemical properties. Also known as breakover.
Change in a quantity's numerical value as a result of using a different unit of measurement.
A defense mechanism whereby unconscious emotional conflict is transformed into physical disability, the affected part always having symbolic meaning pertinent to the nature of the conflict.

breaking down, conversion

The process of sawing logs into boards.


1. See breaking down.
2. A change in the use of a building to another use which has different requirements according to code (e.g., different exit, fire-resistance, light and ventilation, loading, structural, or zoning requirements).


1. a change to another attitude or belief, as in a change of religion
2. Maths a change in the units or form of a number or expression
3. Logic a form of inference by which one proposition is obtained as the converse of another proposition
4. Law
a. unauthorized dealing with or the assumption of rights of ownership to another's personal property
b. the changing of real property into personalty or personalty into realty
5. Rugby a score made after a try by kicking the ball over the crossbar from a place kick
6. Physics a change of fertile material to fissile material in a reactor
a. an alteration to a car engine to improve its performance
b. (as modifier): a conversion kit
8. NZ the unauthorized appropriation of a motor vehicle


(1) "Data conversion" is changing data from one file or database format to another. It may also require code conversion between ASCII and EBCDIC.

(2) "Graphics conversion" is changing from one vector or bitmapped file format to another. See graphics conversion.

(3) "Media conversion" is changing storage media such as from tape to disk, or hard disk to flash memory. It may also refer to the conversion from analog to digital media. See digital converter.

(4) "Program conversion" is changing the programming source language from one dialect to another or from one platform to another.

(5) "Computer system conversion" is changing the computer model and peripheral devices.

(6) "Information system conversion" requires data conversion and either program conversion or the installation of newly purchased or created application programs.

(7) See conversion filter and image filter.

(8) See also conversion rate.
References in periodicals archive ?
Levenson, Allan, 1995, The Conversionary Impulse in fin de Siecle Germany, Year Book XL, New York: Leo Baeck Institute.
But more significantly, whenever a Jew tests or scorns Mary or her son, he or she is immediately physically struck by divine wrath that is always identified with the mother of God, and the individual either repents, is healed, and becomes a Christian and a conversionary force for other Jews or is killed outright, causing the immediate conversion of other Jews.
The important aspect of this passage is the perspectival limitation of the agent who undergoes a conversionary experience.
Similarly, with the passing of the special theological and conversionary pressures of the fifteenth century due in great measure to the Expulsion, the traditional halakhic leadership no longer had any need to deal with the question of the principles of Judaism and reverted to their customary preoccupations, coupled with ever-increasing attention to Kabbalah.
However, as Bede's Ecclesiastical History and The History of the Abbots of Wearmouth-Jarrow attest, among the many who were partly good and partly bad there were saintly men and women who demonstrated how by a process of conversionary mimesis they could transform their lives and their society.
In either case, their roles can be conversionary helping to transform resources into outputs - or diversionary - transferring resources to non-producers.
From the early Christian Church, through the conversionary processes of Merovingian France and Anglo-Saxon England,(56) to the audience of the preaching of Francis of Assisi (typified by St Clare),(57) women have frequently been more receptive than men to the Church's message and prominent in giving voice to popular beliefs drawn from 'low culture'.
Such a reaction testifies to changes that many of us who were born in the last few decades take for granted, such as the claims that supersessionism is a sin; that God's covenant with the Jewish people is living and irrevocable; that the deicide charge against the Jewish people is wrong; that Jesus, along with major Gospel figures such as Joseph, Mary, and Peter, were all devout Jews; that Christians can deepen their faith and their experience of Jesus through learning about Jews and Judaism; and that no systemic conversionary attempt of the Jews should be undertaken.
In saying that targeting Jews for conversionary campaigns was not acceptable and that mission could properly consist of working together for justice and peace, it attracted predictable press coverage.