copula


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linking verb

Linking verbs (also known as copulas or copular verbs) are used to describe the state of being of the subject of a clause. Unlike action verbs (also called dynamic verbs), they connect the subject to the predicate of the clause without expressing any action.
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copula

Logic the often unexpressed link between the subject and predicate terms of a categorial proposition, as are in all men are mortal

Copula

 

an auxiliary grammatical element of a compound predicate having a weakened lexical meaning and serving to express merely grammatical categories of the predicate, the lexical meaning being expressed by a nonconjugated, usually nominal, element. The verb “to be” is used as a copula in many languages. The presence of a copula may be obligatory, as in English and French; optional, as in Russian and Hungarian; determined by the type of nominal predicate, as in Swahili; or determined by the semantic character of the sentence, as in Khmer. Certain verbs besides “to be” can function as copulas; these verbs, which introduce an additional nuance to the meaning of the elements linked by the verb, include the Russian nachinat’ (“to begin”), stanovit’sia (“to become”), and delat’ (“to do,” “to make”).

References in periodicals archive ?
In the past tense, a free-standing copula is required:
Tennyson's yearnings are buried in plain sight: repeated, yet always further to the left, familiarized to the point of elision (remember the implied but silent copula of line 4), repressed (like all Freudian familiars) just out of hearing, then returned (like all Freudian repressions) on a culminating rhyme-cum-repeat.
TABLE 1 Archimedean Copulas Copula C (u, v) Support of [alpha] Clayton [([u.
The Bakairi language oscillates between employing the copula or not (in the present tense, the copula is often omitted), but no language oscillates between employing copula or a positional verb.
at 39 (indicating that this parallel may explain the missing copula in some, but not all, environments).
Non enim ita demens esset ut, si quid amaritudinis in re uxoria cognovisset, iterum in eam sponte sua vellet incidere postquam naturae beneficio sive dei cuiuspiam indulgentia illa molestia caruisset, sed certe intelligit id quod res est nullam esse hominis vitam sine copula coniugali, sine voluptate ad quam nati sumus.
Both ESL and native speakers sometimes resort to creolization when translating into E-Prime, "[d]oing without be as both copula and auxiliary: 'She a fine scholar'" (Todd & Hancock 498).
But too often in Close Readers, the reading isn't close enough to explain or illuminate this connection; if this copula is inexorable, it spends much of this book as a parallel (both sodomy and humanism are relational, both are controversial, both frequently involve relations between men) rather than as an intersection.
A woman and a man play themselves out like a game of cards, they hold the hand of their anger, the questionable copula, the law of gravity, the mocking lightness of its laws.
Additional features of the Fourth Edition include: extended discussions of risk management and risk measures, including Tail-Value-at-Risk; expanded coverage of copula models and their estimation; new sections on extreme value distributions and their estimations, compound frequency class of distributions, and estimation for the compound class; and motivating examples from fields of insurance and business.
The importance of using copula to account for dependencies of operational risk losses is also highlighted.