copula


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linking verb

Linking verbs (also known as copulas or copular verbs) are used to describe the state of being of the subject of a clause. Unlike action verbs (also called dynamic verbs), they connect the subject to the predicate of the clause without expressing any action.
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copula

Logic the often unexpressed link between the subject and predicate terms of a categorial proposition, as are in all men are mortal

Copula

 

an auxiliary grammatical element of a compound predicate having a weakened lexical meaning and serving to express merely grammatical categories of the predicate, the lexical meaning being expressed by a nonconjugated, usually nominal, element. The verb “to be” is used as a copula in many languages. The presence of a copula may be obligatory, as in English and French; optional, as in Russian and Hungarian; determined by the type of nominal predicate, as in Swahili; or determined by the semantic character of the sentence, as in Khmer. Certain verbs besides “to be” can function as copulas; these verbs, which introduce an additional nuance to the meaning of the elements linked by the verb, include the Russian nachinat’ (“to begin”), stanovit’sia (“to become”), and delat’ (“to do,” “to make”).

References in periodicals archive ?
The current study design did not permit distinction between the hypotheses that weight bearing slows down females and that slower-moving females are more likely to be found in copula because they are less able to escape from males.
Three typical copulas (Normal-copula, t-copula and Gumbel-copula) were chosen to fit the dependence and the goodness-of-fit was measured using two indices ([chi square]-statistics and the Euclidean distance de).
La frecuencia relativa de copulas (FRC) se determino mediante la siguiente relacion: FRC = (C/(N/2))*100, donde C es el numero de copulas contadas y N es el numero de individuos adultos contados en cada transecto de la estacion de muestreo (modificado de Cala, de Jesus-Navarrete, Ocana, & Oliva-Rivera, 2013).
Asi y todo, la postulacion de una clase adjetival aspectualmente ambivalente (Lujan 1981) o subespecificada respecto a la distincion IL/SL (Fernandez Leborans, 1999) no aporta una explicacion fundamentada para el hecho de que los casos excedentes presenten propiedades aspectuales visiblemente diferentes cuando lo unico que varia entre ellos no es el predicado sino la copula.
Cabe anotar que la copula no se encuentra definida sobre las tasas de mortalidad directamente, ni sobre las series filtradas a traves del modelo ARIMA o el Modelo de Lee-Carter.
The copula C contains the dependence information between the variables, and can be used to model the joint distribution of random variables.
We have to admit that in Latvian grammar descriptions the constructions structured as modal or phase verb + infinitive are not usually considered as predicates with a copula, but are treated as compound predicates (Latviesu valodas gramatika 2013 : 468-470, 718-719), because the verb in the finite form has not been grammaticalized far enough to lose its lexical meaning when used in different tense or aspect forms.
Copula modeling allows multivariate distribution functions to be described by means of their marginal distribution functions and a dependence function named copula.
where [mathematical expression not reproducible] is the marginal probability density function (PDF) and c(u) is the joint PDF of the copula function denoted as follows:
After selecting the best copula, m scenarios are simulated by means of the Monte Carlo technique based on the estimated parameters of the copula.
There is a pair of elements anterior to the basibranchial copula in B.