Entre a primeira e a decima pergunta, o missionario quer saber se uma mulher casada mantinha relacoes poligamicas, ao copular
com outro homem (apyaba), alem do marido.
Structurally, such sentences still look copular
(the third-person copula nai can still sometimes occur), but are best analyzed as a new kind of transitive construction (Meira 2007).
The zero-copula construction can be analyzed as a subtype of the copular
one (basically, the copula is omitted under certain circumstances), but the positional construction is indeed of a different kind.
Finally, we will consider the use of the positionals and of the locative/ copular
verb sein 'be' in relation to the BLC hierarchy proposed by David Wilkins, as summarized in the introduction to this issue.
2b) The dynamic present perfect, expressing an event in the past that has a bearing on the present, is expressed by the Pt base with copular
suffixes, and lacks a preverbal particle, e.
Given the discussion thus far, it should not be surprising that Vietnamese existentials are expressed using the multifunctional element co; in this usage, co corresponds to the English copular
Specifically, the nonverbal predicate in (2) receives tense and agreement morphology via the present variant of the copular
clitic (y / 0 (= null)).
Zribi-Hertz (1997) argues convincingly that the predicates in English copular
constructions like This is John's/mine do not involve elliptical possessees but should be considered possessive adjectives instead.
Should we not expect the most important information at the end of the sentence, that is, in an inverted copular
and aspectual auxiliaries: Spanish 'ser' and "estar'.
Except for copular
sentences and a few other cases which allow inversion of subject and verb or auxiliary, topicalization will always result in a position before the subject.
Unergatives as copular
verbs: locatianal and existential predication.