scaling

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scaling

[′skāl·iŋ]
(biology)
The removing of scales from fishes.
(electronics)
Counting pulses with a scaler when the pulses occur too fast for direct counting by conventional means.
(engineering)
Removing scale (rust or salt) from a metal or other surface.
(graphic arts)
Using a scale to measure dimensions in a scale drawing.
(mechanics)
Expressing the terms in an equation of motion in powers of nondimensional quantities (such as a Reynolds number), so that terms of significant magnitude under conditions specified in the problem can be identified, and terms of insignificant magnitude can be dropped.
(medicine)
(metallurgy)
Forming of a thick layer of metallic oxide on metals at high temperatures.
Depositing of solid inorganic solutes from water on a metal surface, such as a cooling tube or boiler.
(mining engineering)
Removing loose rocks and coal from the roof, walls, or face after blasting.
(nuclear physics)
A property of nuclear collisions whereby the likelihood of a nuclear reaction depends more on the ratio between energy transferred and momentum transferred than on the energy transferred between the colliding particles.

scaling

a method ofmeasurement in the social sciences, which is applied particularly to the measurement of personality traits and of ATTITUDES. Central is the concept of a continuum. This means that personality types, for example, can be arranged or ordered in terms of dichotomous schemas (such as EXTRAVERSION AND INTROVERSION), and attitudes vary on a scale going from one extreme, through neutral, to the other extreme. When this is not possible and two or more dimensions are required for accurate description, multidimensional scaling is used (see Kruksall and Wish, Multidimensional Scaling, 1978.)

There are a number of ways of constructing such scales, but all rely on the assumption that personality traits or attitudes can be assessed from the responses given to statements or questions (see LIKERT SCALE). It is important that an equal number of positively and negatively loaded statements are used, and that only one dimension is tapped. Various statistical techniques are used to check the internal consistency of scales as they are developed.

QUESTIONNAIRES are the usual basis of scaling, but it can also be done from CONTENT ANALYSIS. See also ATTITUDE SCALE/MEASUREMENT, GUTTMAN SCALE, POLITICAL ATTITUDES.

scaling

Local flaking or peeling away of the surface portion of concrete or mortar.

scaling

(1) See scale.

(2) Sometimes refers to obtaining incremental improvements in new products via traditional methods: "evolutionary" rather than "revolutionary."