spasm

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spasm,

involuntary rigid muscle contraction, often persistent and often accompanied by pain. It usually has some underlying physical cause such as disease, strain, or injury to the muscle or nearby tissues, impairment of circulation, or a disturbance of body chemistry. The spasm may be confined to one group of muscles or it may be severe and fairly generalized, as in convulsionsconvulsion,
sudden, violent, involuntary contraction of the muscles of the body, often accompanied by loss of consciousness. It is not known what causes the abnormal impulses from the brain that result in convulsive seizures, since the disturbance may arise in normal brain
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. Painless localized spasms are called tics. These purposeless movements, usually of some part of the face, may begin as purposeful movement in response to some stimulus but eventually are carried out automatically, apparently without reason. They may disappear spontaneously after a time, or may require the elimination of some physical or psychic cause.

Spasm

 

an involuntary tonic contraction (cramp) of a muscle or group of muscles. Spasms may affect striated skeletal muscles (for example, with certain paralyses) or smooth muscles. Subject to spasms are the smooth muscles of the vascular wall (for instance, during angina pectoris), the bronchi, the esophagus (cardiospasm), and the intestine. Skeletal-muscle spasms make movement difficult, and smooth-muscle spasms disrupt various functions of organs.


Spasm

 

a sudden involuntary muscular contraction marked by extreme tension. Two types of spasms are distinguished: tonic and clonic. In tonic spasm, the tension persists for a long time, and in clonic spasm, there are synchronous jerking muscular contractions, which may be diffuse or limited. Spasms of different muscle groups are designated by specific terms, for example, trismus (spasm of the masticatory muscles) and blepharospasm (spasm of the ring muscle of the eye). Clonic spasms of the entire body are sometimes called convulsions.

Spasm may arise spontaneously or as a reaction to external influences, for example, spasm of the gastrocnemius muscles after chilling in water. It may also result from internal influences, for example, tension of the abdominal muscles in peritonitis. Spasm may be a manifestation of epilepsy, eclampsia, spasmophilia, inflammation, brain tumor and trauma, and many other disorders. In addition to spasm of striated muscles, there is spasm of smooth muscles, for example, cardiospasm and pylorospasm. In children, spasm is most common at a very early age, owing to the structure and functioning of the brain at this stage of life; it results from infection, poisoning, trauma, and various psychogenic factors.

Spasm is treated by caring for the underlying disorder and by administering such anticonvulsants as phenobarbital, primidone, and diphenylhydantoin. The affected person should get sufficient sleep and should abstain from alcohol.

V. A. KARLOV

spasm

[′spaz·əm]
(medicine)
An involuntary and abnormal contraction of isolated bundles of muscle or groups of muscles resulting from a chemical imbalance due to fatigue, ischemia, or trauma.

spasm

an involuntary muscular contraction, esp one resulting in cramp or convulsion
References in periodicals archive ?
In early studies, ergonovine was administered intravenously, the patients receiving very high doses which led to severe angina and death; then this method was abandoned and replaced by intracoronary administration, a much safer method for the induction of the coronary spasm (Yasue et al 2008).
Coronary spasm was the major cause of suspected STEMI with normal coronaries when patients referred for primary PCI (7 out of 17 [41.
In view of past documentation of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia on Holter and recurrent ventricular fibrillation during the present episode he is advised close follow up for consideration of automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator (AICD) despite the recent question on efficacy of AICD in patients with coronary spasm and frequent life threatening arrhythmias.
Thyroid function tests should be routine in patients presenting with chest pain due to coronary spasm.
pentaphyllum leaves and of the pure gypenosides (Gy) on the pitressin--induced electrocardiographic and pressor alterations in the anaesthetized guinea-pigs % animals with ST (max height, mm) Treatment Dose (mg/kg) coronary spasm (means [+ or -] s.
Nobody really understands what causes coronary spasm.
It was not generally accepted until the 1970s, however, when Oliva et al(50) and then Maseri et al(5l) documented coronary spasm of the major arteries in patients undergoing angiography.
In our case, treatment with a beta blocking agent might have been responsible for persistent coronary spasm.
Complications during PCI were defined as side-branch occlusion, intimal dissection, coronary spasm, or a distal embolization.
This group includes coronary atherosclerosis plaque rupture, haemorrhage, thrombosis, coronary spasm, severe stenosis, trauma and mezzanine as the basic pathophysiological characteristics, with the common characteristics of necrosis or acute myocardial ischemia caused by increasing myocardial consumption of oxygen, leading to hyperpyrexia, severe anaemia and hyperthyroidism.
5) In additional, coronary spasm produces a higher chance of atherosclerotic events owing to thrombus formation accelerating and fibrinolysis delaying.
The hypothesis that the infarction might have been caused by coronary spasm followed by thrombosis may be supported by a similar case of a 28-year-old man who developed a myocardial infarct after abusing synephrine tablets.