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any of a group (family Coronaviridae, subfamily Coronavirinae) of enveloped single-stranded RNA viruses that have a crownlike or sunlike appearance under an electron microscope due to the presence of spikes on their surface. Coronaviruses infect mammals (including humans) and birds, mainly in the upper respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts. Most only infect a single species or closely related species; a number of coronaviruses can have significant effects on farm animals, especially poultry.

In humans the most prevalent coronaviruses are those that are responsible for varieties of the common coldcold, common,
acute viral infection of the mucous membranes of the nose and throat, often involving the sinuses. The typical sore throat, sneezing, and fatigue may be accompanied by body aches, headache, low fever, and chills.
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; coronaviruses are estimated to cause as many as 30% of all colds. More serious are the coronaviruses responsible for SARSSARS
or severe acute respiratory syndrome,
communicable viral disease that can progress to a potentially fatal pneumonia. The first symptoms of SARS are usually a high fever, headache and body aches, sore throat, and mild respiratory symptoms; diarrhea may occur.
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 (severe acute respiratory syndrome), SARSCoV, and for MERS (Middle East respiratory syndrome), MERSCoV; outbreaks caused by infections with these viruses, which can affect both humans and animals, have resulted in signficant deaths. The SARS outbreak began in China in 2002 and spread globally in 2003; some 9% of those infected died. The first identified MERS outbreak originated in 2012 in Saudi Arabia (the virus appears to be common in dromedary camels); the most significant outbreak outside Saudi Arabia occurred in South Korea in 2015 and was traced to an individual who had visited the Middle East. MERS has killed roughly 40% of those people who are known to be infected, but infections have been relatively rare. Most known cases of MERS have quickly progressed to serious respiratory illness, with fever, cough, pneumonia, shortness of breath, and difficulty breathing. Many MERS patients have also had diarrhea and other gastrointestinal symptoms; kidney failure has sometimes occurred. Older individuals appear to be particularly susceptible. Although there has been person-to-person transmission, MERSCoV (unlike the SARS virus) does not appear to be highly contagious in humans.

Human coronaviruses appear to spread mainly through droplets in the air resulting from coughing or sneezing, or through close contact with an infected person or a contaminated object or surface. There are no vaccines or treatment for coronaviruses; care consists mainly in alleviating symptoms and preventing the viruses' transmission through handwashing and other measures. The first coronavirus, an infectious bronchitis virus of birds, was identified in the 1930s; the first human coronaviruses, associated with the common cold, were identified in the 1960s.


A major group of animal viruses including avian infectious bronchitis virus and mouse hepatitis virus.


a type of airborne virus accounting for 10-30% of all colds
References in periodicals archive ?
The coronaviruses have a pseudoknot tertiary structure that allows a ribosomal shift of the reading frame between ORFla and ORF lb (7-9).
Coronaviruses are believed to cause a significant percentage of all common colds in human adults.
K22 is the latest in a slew of drug candidates to counter coronaviruses, for which no proven drug treatments exist.
11) The limitations of the serological assays are lack of validation and cross reaction with other coronaviruses.
The virus has been placed in lineage C of the genus beta coronavirus and is the only human virus in that group; the other two members are bat coronaviruses.
led a team that surveyed bats from the Bisha area last fall to see if they could find coronaviruses similar to NCoV.
Genetic sequence analyses have shown that this new virus is different from any other known human coronaviruses, including the one that caused severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) (2).
Everywhere you look in bats there seem to be one or two new coronaviruses, but most bat coronaviruses are not SARS-like.
Coronaviruses cause of the common cold but can result in more severe illnesses including Sars (severe acute respiratory syndrome).
Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses, with different members of the "family" causing illness in humans and animals.
On April 24 the NAMRU-3 team informed the MOH that all samples had tested negative for known coronaviruses and other respiratory viruses.
Coronaviruses are a group of viruses causing respiratory infections in humans and animals.