corrupt practices

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corrupt practices,

in politics, fraud connected with elections. The term also refers to various offenses by public officials, including bribery, the sale of offices, granting of public contracts to favored firms or individuals, and granting of land or franchises in return for monetary rewards. Election fraud may consist of efforts to influence or intimidate the voter or to tamper with the official ballotballot,
means of voting for candidates for office. The choice may be indicated on or by the ballot forms themselves—e.g., colored balls (hence the term ballot, which is derived from the Italian ballotta,
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 or election count. To eliminate these practices nearly all democratic nations have passed laws that attempt to safeguard the honesty of political campaigns, elections, and officials. In Great Britain the Acts of 1883 and 1918, frequently amended, define election abuses and limit political spending by or on behalf of candidates for Parliament. In the United States individual states have their own election laws, preceding federal statutes. In large cities of the United States election fraud has historically been associated with political machines (see bossismbossism,
in U.S. history, system of political control centering about a single powerful figure (the boss) and a complex organization of lesser figures (the machine) bound together by reciprocity in promoting financial and social self-interest.
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). On the federal level, the Corrupt Practices Act of 1925, the Hatch Act of 1940, parts of the Taft-Hartley Act of 1947, and the campaign financing legislation of 1974 were attempts to limit campaign spending and the size of contributions. Requiring public disclosure and providing public funding of the presidential campaign were in response to abuses connected with secret campaign funds used in the 1972 presidential election (see Watergate affairWatergate affair,
in U.S. history, series of scandals involving the administration of President Richard M. Nixon; more specifically, the burglarizing of the Democratic party national headquarters in the Watergate apartment complex in Washington, D.C.
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). Subsequently, the Senate and the House established ethics committees and codes of conduct, and required public accounting of income and campaign contributions. The Ethics Act of 1978 and the stricter Government Ethics Reform Act of 1989 bar top government officials from lobbying private corporations or other governments for specified periods after leaving office. The latter act also bars former executive branch officials, congressmen, and their staff members from trying to influence senior employees in their former branches for one year after they leave office. These reforms, however, have not prevented the proliferation of Political Action Committees, a marked increase in campaign spending, and the creative use of loopholes, such as "soft money" for party-building, with no contribution limits. The term "corrupt practices" has also been applied to businesses and labor unions, in the former case for price fixing, and in the latter for misappropriation of funds or the rigging of union elections.


See G. Thayer, Who Shakes the Money Tree? American Campaign Financing Practices from 1789 to the Present (1973); M. Clarke, ed., Corruption (1984); W. J. Chambliss, On the Take (2d ed. 1988); P. M. Stern, The Best Congress Money Can Buy (1988); Congressional Quarterly Editorial Research Reports (1989); M. P. and P. Glazer, The Whistleblowers (1989).

References in classic literature ?
It is a pious consolation to me that, through my interference, a sufficient space was allowed them for repentance of the evil and corrupt practices into which, as a matter of course, every Custom-House officer must be supposed to fall.
Islamabad -- To augment and support the endeavor of National Accountability Bureau in its drive against elimination of corruption and corrupt practices from public sector organizations and society, Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority (PEMRA) invited Ms.
ISLAMABAD -- The Executive Board Meeting (EBM) of National Accountability Bureau (NAB) here Wednesday filed reference against the officials involved in corruption and corrupt practices causing losses to national exchequer.
In this case, the accused person is alleged for corruption / corrupt practices and misuse of authority.
As a senior associate, Paul focuses his practice on white collar criminal defense for both corporations and individuals, with an emphasis on the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, insider trading, public corruption and federal election law.
laws, such as the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, to expose corruption and obtain rewards regardless of their country of citizenship.
The mechanism of confiscation was introduced in early Islamic states with the purpose of punishing those who embezzled, abused their duties, used their public position to acquire wealth, took bribes or resorted to corrupt practices.
Attacking corrupt practices adopted by the Haryana chief minister, the INLD supremo said Hooda's grandfather Matu Ram had five acres of land and after the division of the property, Hooda father's share was just 1.
Angelina Tan (4th District, Quezon) filed House Bill 4379 in a bid to encourage many citizens to report improper use of government offices as well as corrupt practices of public officials.
According to Sport24, Cook, who played in the controversial Lord's Test of 2011 that led to three Pakistan players Salman Butt, Mohammad Asif and Mohammed mer being banned and jailed for spot-fixing, said that he has already been involved in a high-profile game which has been changed by corrupt practices that cheapen the sport.
This article tracks this rapid evolution in Canadian corporate culture and compliance through a broad examination of corporate liability for foreign corrupt practices under Canadian law.
The complaint alleges that Net 1 misrepresented or failed to disclose that the Company's practices to secure contracts in South Africa were in violation of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act and, as a result, that the Company's financial statements were materially false and misleading at all relevant times.