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cosmos(kŏz`məs), any plant of the tropical American genus Cosmos of the family Asteraceae (asteraster
[Gr.,=star], common name for the Asteraceae (Compositae), the aster family, in North America, name for plants of the genus Aster, sometimes called wild asters, and for a related plant more correctly called China aster (Callistephus chinensis
..... Click the link for more information. family). C. bipinnatus, of Mexico, and others are cultivated in many varieties for their showy flowers in shades of red, yellow, and white. Cosmos is classified in the division MagnoliophytaMagnoliophyta
, division of the plant kingdom consisting of those organisms commonly called the flowering plants, or angiosperms. The angiosperms have leaves, stems, and roots, and vascular, or conducting, tissue (xylem and phloem).
..... Click the link for more information. , class Magnoliopsida, order Asterales, family Asteaceae.
Cosmos(koz -moss) A large series of Soviet satellites, the first of which was launched in March 1962. The many and varied applications of these satellites included astronomical, ionospheric, atmospheric, geomagnetic, geodetic, and biological studies. The satellites were also apparently used for navigation, reconnaissance, ocean surveillance, and military communications.
COSMOSA system of highly versatile automated plate-scanning equipment at the Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, used principally to extract data from the sky photographs of the UK Schmidt Telescope and other Schmidts.
among the ancient Greeks (beginning with Pythagoras, sixth century B.C.), the universe as an orderly, harmonious system, as opposed to chaos, the disorderly accumulation of matter. From the Greek the term “cosmos” entered modern science as a synonym for universe. The cosmos includes interplanetary, interstellar, and intergalactic space with all the objects in it. The earth and its atmosphere are sometimes excluded from the concept of the cosmos (cosmic space). In this sense, the term “cosmos” (the term “near space” is also used) became widespread after the USSR in 1957 launched the first artificial object into space—an earth satellite—and began exploring the earth’s atmosphere and interplanetary space with the aid of various space vehicles.
a genus of annual or perennial herbs of the family Compositae. The stems are branching, and the leaves are thinly twice pinnatisect. The inflorescences are heads on long peduncles with infertile ligulate or bisexual tubular flowers. The achenes have several awns, which easily detach. There are approximately 25 species, distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions of America. Many species are ornamentals. A common Mexican species is Cosmos bipinnatus, which measures up to 1 m tall and has pinkish-purple, red, or white ligulate flowers. Another common species is yellow cosmos ( C. sulphureus), which has yellow ligulate flowers.
(Kosmos), the name of a series of artificial earth satellites regularly launched (beginning Mar. 16, 1962) from several cosmodromes in the Soviet Union using various two- to four-stage launch vehicles for studies of cosmic space and the upper layers of the atmosphere. Twenty-four Cosmos satellites were launched in 1962–63, 27 in 1964, 52 in 1965, 34 in 1966, 61 in 1967, 64 in 1968, 55 in 1969, 72 in 1970, 81 in 1971, 72 in 1972, and 85 in 1973. As of Dec. 1, 1975, about 800 satellites of this type had been launched.
The Cosmos scientific program includes studies of the concentrations of charged particles, particle fluxes, radio-wave propagation, the Van Allen radiation belt, cosmic rays, the earth’s magnetic field, solar radiation, meteorite matter, and cloud formations in the earth’s atmosphere. Satellites of the Cosmos series are useful in solving technical problems in connection with space flight (docking in orbit, reentry of spacecraft into the atmosphere, the effect of conditions in space, and problems of attitude control, life support, and protection from radiation) and in the advancement of structural elements and on-board spacecraft systems. The orbits of Cosmos satellites range in altitude from about 145 km to 60,600 km (Cosmos 260). Some Cosmos satellites (up to eight at a time) were launched by a single launch vehicle (for example, Cosmos 38 and 40, Cosmos 71 through 75, and Cosmos 336 through 343).
Satellites of the Cosmos series differ with respect to design and types of basic and scientific equipment. Many of them have attitude control systems (oriented toward the sun or earth or along the velocity vector). The power supply for the on-board instrumentation is provided by solar batteries and chemical power cells (isotope generating systems were tested on Cosmos 84 and Cosmos 90). Scientific data and measurements are transmitted to earth by means of multichannel telemetry systems with on-board memory units. Some satellites of the series are equipped with reentry vehicles for the return of scientific apparatus and experimental objects to earth (for example, Cosmos 110, 136, and 188). A number of them were standardized with respect to design and composition of the main on-board systems, which provides for relative ease of changing the makeup of scientific instrumentation in various modifications. In 1966 the biological satellite Cosmos 110 was used to perform an extended medical and biological experiment on dogs, which were recovered in a reentry capsule after 22 days in orbit. The Cosmos 144 and 156 weather satellites were used to generate meteorological data in the Meteor system.
The first automatic approach and docking was performed during the joint flight of Cosmos 186 and 188 on Oct. 30, 1967. Cosmos 261 was used in studies of the upper atmosphere and the aurora borealis, with the participation of various scientific research institutes and observatories of the socialist countries (the People’s Republic of Bulgaria, the Hungarian People’s Republic, the German Democratic Republic, the Polish People’s Republic, the Socialist Republic of Rumania, the USSR, and the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic). Satellites launched by the USSR since Oct. 14, 1969, within the framework of the program of international cooperation among socialist countries in the area of space research and utilization are part of the Intercosmos series.
E. F. RIAZANOV [13–775–3; updated]
(Kosmos), a two-stage Soviet launch vehicle that has been used since Mar. 16, 1962, for launching artificial earth satellites of the Cosmos series. The stages are arranged in tandem, with a total length of 30 m and a width of 1.65 m. The first stage is equipped with an RD-214 motor, with a thrust of 726 kilonewtons (kN), or 74 tons-force (tf), using a nitric acid oxidizer and hydrocarbon fuel. The second stage has an RD-119 motor, with a thrust of 108 kN (11 tf), using liquid oxygen and unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine. The satellite is located on the second stage under the nose cone, which is jettisoned along the recovery trajectory after passing through the dense layers of the atmosphere. Separation of the satellite from the second stage takes place at the end of recovery trajectory. The Cosmos launch vehicle has been used in launching a number of Soviet satellites designed for scientific studies of near space and of the upper atmosphere.