cotton gin

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cotton gin,

machine for separating cotton fibers from the seeds. The charkha, used in India from antiquity, consists of two revolving wooden rollers through which the fibers are drawn, leaving the seeds. A similar gin was early used in the S United States for long-staple cotton. In the modern roller gin, rollers covered with rough leather draw out the fibers, which are cut off by a fixed knife pressed against the rollers. This type of gin cleans only about two bales per day, but it does not snarl or break the fibers. The saw gin, invented by the American inventor Eli Whitney in 1793 and patented in 1794, consisted of a toothed cylinder revolving against a grate that enclosed the seed cotton. The teeth caught the fibers, pulling them from the seeds; the fibers were then removed from the cylinder by a revolving brush. This device, especially suited to short- and medium-staple cotton, has been mechanized and is used in commercial plants that are also called gins, where the fiber is conveyed from farm wagon to baler by air suction. Such plants have one or more gin stands, each with a series of from 70 to 80 circular saws set on a shaft. The fibers, freed from dirt and hulls, are pulled through a grid by the saw teeth to remove the seeds. The fibers are removed from the saw teeth by a revolving brush or by a blast of air (in more modern plants) and are then carried by air blast or suction to a condenser and finally to the baling apparatus.

Cotton Gin

 

a machine for cleaning seed cotton gathered from the ground and bollies.

The USSR produces the model UPKh-1.5B cotton gin. It works in the following manner. The cotton enters an air separator through a pipe feeder and is fed to a toothed cylinder, where large-size trash, such as clumps of earth and stones, is removed. The cylinder pulls the cotton across a screen, removing small debris, and a suction valve draws the cotton into a hopper. Feed rollers deliver the cotton to a rubbing cylinder that forces small debris through a screen, and the cotton is thrown onto a hulling cylinder. When cleaning bollies, the rubbing cylinder breaks the shell, and the seed cotton that is extracted is fed to the shelling cylinder. The shelling and blade cylinders then feed the cotton to a saw cylinder. The cotton is taken from the saws by a brush cylinder and fed to the saw cylinder for an additional cleaning. It is then removed by the brush cylinder and ejected toward a kicker or fed to the brush cylinder again, from which it is unloaded by a suction valve and pneumatic conveyor along a tube into a trailer.

The UPKh-1.5B cotton gin is driven by a pulley or takeoff shaft from a tractor engine or by an electric motor. The machine can clean 1,500 kg of seed cotton (with approximately 10 percent contamination) per hour. Its productivity for hand-picked bollies (with no more than 20 percent humidity) is 1,500kg/hr; for machine-picked bollies the productivity is 700–800kg/hr. Five workers are needed to operate the gin.

M. SH. GODIK

cotton gin

[′kät·ən ‚jin]
(textiles)
A machine that separates cottonseed from the fibers.
References in periodicals archive ?
George McCrary, Mooresville, Alabama, inherited a cotton gin dating to the 1880s.
His factory, built in about 1880, was the largest supplier of cotton gin equipment at the time.
Cotton gin waste (CGW) is a renewable agricultural waste that contains natural fibers.
Ironically, the cotton gin did much more than make cotton growing a profitable venture for the southern states.
One of the options California's San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District is considering--if cotton gins are designated as "significant sources of PM2.
More San Joaquin Valley cotton gins will close in the coming year, leaving only a handful of large cooperative gins to handle the bale-making and cotton seed business.
A new hydromulch spray that includes cotton gin waste will be tested by Agricultural Research Service (ARS) scientists and cooperators at Summit Seed, Inc.
See also "New Technologies for Cotton Gins Combine for Big Savings," Agricultural Research, May 2006, pp.
This will put the module builder in the ranks of the cotton gin and the mechanical harvester, both of which are ASAE historic landmarks," says ASAE member and agricultural engineering professor Steve Searcy.
Holt says several cotton gins are currently considering coming together to build a plant to process and sell their own waste.
About 3,000 ginners representing cotton gins in 15 states have passed through the Stoneville gin school, according to Anthony, who is one of the instructors and co-developers of the curriculum at Stoneville.
While these devices enable cotton gins to meet most regulatory requirements, air quality standards are becoming more stringent.