counterfactual


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counterfactual

or

counterfactual conditional

a conditional statement, of the form ‘if a , then b’, in which the assertion is that ‘were a to have occurred, then b would have followed’, as in ‘had the Greeks lost the Battle of Marathon, then a different historical outcome from the uniquely Western route to modernity would have been the outcome’. Since the ‘antecedent’ (the first clause of the statement) in such counterfactual statements is unfulfilled, the empirical assessment of the claim involved in the ‘consequent’ (the second clause) presents some difficulties. The plausibility of such statements depends on the possibility of citing convincing supporting evidence which can justify the conditional statement.
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References in periodicals archive ?
The Dec-Mar temperature difference between the factual and counterfactual experiments is +0.
When the interested parties focus on ways the loss might have been worse, they're using a modeling technique called downward counterfactual analysis.
Other education groups have only a slightly higher interested-nonparticipation rate than in 2008, with the counterfactual remaining essentially constant.
understanding this counterfactual character of the evidence--rather than
I begin by considering the counterfactual statements in "A Castaway" and in an essay from A Housewife's Opinions, "Poets and Personal Pronouns," to show how Webster's dramatic poems served as a testing ground for the theories of reform and social thought that she went on to develop in her essays.
Where Gismondi and Davidson focus their attention on the industry and government sources responsible for the conditions of a populace willingly assenting to the legitimacy of the tar sands project, Gordon extends the conversation by focusing on the counterfactual works of literature that challenge this legitimacy and the privileging of (certain) facts and (certain) forms of reason.
Keywords: counterfactual interaction; extrinsic disposition; fragility; intrinsic disposition; toxicity
Future counterfactual schemes could enable the imaging of objects vulnerable to light, the team says.
KEY WORDS: contrastivism, counterfactual conditional, general causation, singular causation, causal claim
The numerous attempts to do so almost invariably compare futures under climate change to an alternative or counterfactual scenario where global climate change due to human activity is not present.
Specifically, we will calculate the counterfactual equilibrium price of gas at the intersection of the 2007 supply curve with the 2013 demand curve; we need the elasticities of both supply and demand to identify this intersection relative to the realized 2007 and 2013 equilibria.
In the Fall 2014 issue of Contemporary Economic Policy, two Lehigh University economists seek to answer the counterfactual question: What would have happened to the wage gap in Ontario if the act hadn't been passed?