An oppressed class under the sway of the feudal nobility, an armed and self-governing association in the mediaeval commune; here independent urban republic (as in Italy and Germany), there taxable "third estate" of the monarchy (as in France), afterwards, in the period of manufacture proper, serving either the semi-feudal or the absolute monarchy as a counterpoise
against the nobility, and, in fact, corner-stone of the great monarchies in general, the bourgeoisie has at last, since the establishment of Modern Industry and of the world-market, conquered for itself, in the modern representative State, exclusive political sway.
But nature had provided against this by giving her a natural counterpoise
, which rendered needless the deceitful adjunct of a bustle; in Rose Cormon everything was genuine.
The physician with his theory, rather obtained from than corrected by experiments on the human constitution; the pious, self- denying, laborious, and ill-paid missionary; the half-educated, litigious, envious, and disreputable lawyer, with his counterpoise
, a brother of the profession, of better origin and of better character; the shiftless, bargaining, discontented seller of his “betterments;” the plausible carpenter, and most of the others, are more familiar to all who have ever dwelt in a new country.
He took Manicamp with him, for his equable and dreamy disposition acted as a counterpoise
to his own.
They may sometimes discourse high, but that doth little hurt; besides, they are a counterpoise
to the higher nobility, that they grow not too potent; and, lastly, being the most immediate in authority, with the common people, they do best temper popular commotions.
The litter of rags tumbled partly into and partly out of a one-legged wooden scale, hanging without any counterpoise
from a beam, might have been counsellors' bands and gowns torn up.
On the other hand, the delight of exploring an edifice like Udolpho, as her fancy represented Blaize Castle to be, was such a counterpoise
of good as might console her for almost anything.
And certainly the unfortunate prisoner would have fallen ill but for the counterpoise
which Providence had granted to his grief, and which was called Rosa.