The Exendin-4 analog is covalently
bound to recombinant human albumin (Recombumin(R), provided by Novozymes Biopharma).
Preclinical studies into AFP-464's mechanism of action have shown that AFP-464 induces CYP1A1/1A2 and CYP1B1 protein expression and is converted to metabolites that are covalently
bound to DNA, resulting in phosphorylation of p53 with induction of the p53 downstream target p21(Waf1/Cip1) and apoptosis.
He also explained how electrons transfer between species covalently
linked by bridging molecules.
Biochemical engineers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology is Cambridge have covalently
bonded microscopic plastic beads to enzymes derived from microbes.
The data showed that AVL-181 bonds selectively, covalently
and irreversibly to HCV protease (also known as "NS3/4A"), thus silencing a key protein necessary for successful viral replication resulting in a prolonged duration of action.
Columbia University in the City of New York (New York, NY) has patented synthetic receptors which comprise a polyfunctional organic template covalently
linked to two or more oligomers which may independently be the same or different and may independently be straight chain, cyclic or branched.
The mechanism in which this is achieved is believed to be the de-silencing of ER expression by the histone deacetylase inhibitor, followed by CYP1A1 induction and subsequent AFP metabolism into active species that covalently
bind to DNA in these cancer cells and cause specific cell death.
The HaloTag technology is based on a unique protein tag which has been engineered from a bacterial dehalogenase to covalently
attach to a set of synthetic ligands, such as fluorescent dyes, for cellular imaging applications or to resin and magnetic beads for protein interaction analysis applications.
The equation indicates that the shorter the distance between the atoms and the more equally, or covalently
, the atoms share their bonding, or outermost, electrons, the harder the solid.
The assay utilizes monoclonal antibodies or antigen affinity purified polyclonal antibodies covalently
coupled to latex beads.
SCHOTT Type I plusA features a coating on the inside that is covalently
bonded with the glass matrix and drastically reduces interactions between the glass surface and the respective medication.
The researchers assembled one of the system's two reactants, pentafluorophenyl ester, by covalently
bonding it to one arm of a U-shaped molecular frame (Fig.