cowpox


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Related to cowpox: cowpox vaccine

cowpox,

infectious disease of cows caused by a virus related to the virus of smallpox. Also called variola, it is characterized by pustular lesions on the teats and udder. Cowpox is transmitted by contact, inducing a mild infection of the hands in persons who milk infected cows. The fact that such persons had immunity to smallpox led Edward JennerJenner, Edward,
1749–1823, English physician; pupil of John Hunter. His invaluable experiments beginning in 1796 with the vaccination of eight-year-old James Phipps proved that cowpox provided immunity against smallpox.
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 to attempt vaccinationvaccination,
means of producing immunity against pathogens, such as viruses and bacteria, by the introduction of live, killed, or altered antigens that stimulate the body to produce antibodies against more dangerous forms.
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 with this virus, instead of using the dangerous method of vaccinating with material from the sores of smallpox. Jenner's method was successful and is the basis of the modern vaccination against smallpox. Horses and sheep may contract a similar disease.

cowpox

[′kau̇‚päks]
(veterinary medicine)

cowpox

a contagious viral disease of cows characterized by vesicles on the skin, esp on the teats and udder. Inoculation of humans with this virus provides temporary immunity to smallpox. It can be transmitted to other species, esp cats
References in periodicals archive ?
However, it is different from the original cowpox virus that Jenner used in his early vaccinations.
Chasing Jenner's vaccine: revisiting cowpox virus classification.
Through a series of tests slated for next year, the CDC hopes to develop a genetic portrait of the virus used in the vaccine--likely cowpox.
To test his hypothesis, Jenner collected pus from cowpox blisters, and applied it to a break in the skin of healthy people.
These extracts show activity against vaccinia and cowpox by two different viral evaluations, demonstrating the reproducibility of the results.
cgi) identified cowpox virus (CPXV; family Poxviridae, genus Orthopoxvirus) in all cases.
The introduction of inoculations for smallpox, cowpox and measles was adopted swiftly in many areas, and in fact was embedded in law in 1853, making it mandatory to inoculate infants.
The smallpox vaccine was based on the cowpox virus, which caused only limited skin infection in healthy humans," Hurwitz said.
Orthopox viruses are antigenetically closely related vertebrate viruses, including variola major virus (VAR), (1) monkeypox virus (MPV), camelpox virus (CML), vaccinia virus (VAC), cowpox virus (CPV), and six other species not pathogenic for humans.
Edward Jenner (1749-1823) inoculated an 8-year-old boy with cowpox matter into one arm and 6 weeks later inoculated smallpox matter into the other arm (Figure 1).
POPULATION AT RISK British surgeon Edward Jenner launched the practice of vaccination in 1796 by using live, transmissible vaccinia or cowpox virus to protect his patients from closely related smallpox.
By observing local milkmaids, Jenner tested whether the general belief that cowpox sufferers were actually immune to smallpox was true.