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(1) (Chalcogenide RAM) See phase change memory.

(2) (Card Random Access Memory) An early magnetic card mass storage device from NCR that was made available on its 315 computer systems in 1962. It offered reasonably reliable random access storage at a time when magnetic tapes with sequential access were the primary storage medium.

A Mechanical Wonder
CRAM used a removable cartridge housing a deck of 3x14" cards with a magnetic recording surface. There were initially 256, and later 512, cards in the deck, providing 5.5MB and 11MB of storage. With a roomful of 16 units connected to the computer, the total storage capacity was 176 megabytes, a rather large amount of random access capacity for that era.

With air blowing over them to keep them apart, the notched cards were suspended from eight rods that were selectively moved to release a specific card. The card was dropped and wrapped around a rotating drum using air pressure. After reading or writing, it was returned to the cartridge. Every once in a while, two cards dropped at the same time, causing a loud halt to the operation. See RACE and Data Cell.

CRAM Units
NCR's CRAM was a successful addition to its computer line, offering reliable random access during the 1960s. By the end of the decade, magnetic disks were becoming mainstream. (Image courtesy of NCR Corporation.)

The Card Drop
Separated by jets of air so the card could fall freely, a card was released to the read/write head by moving the rods. (Image courtesy of NCR Corporation.)
References in periodicals archive ?
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Cram, nicknamed the 'Jarrow Arrow', stressed the importance of personal goal setting, mentoring and coaching.
Twice, cram down legislation had passed the House and appeared headed toward becoming law, only to fail in the Senate on both occasions in February 2008 and April 2009.
I like Pinsent but he doesn't know anything about ice hockey either so why on earth the BBC stuck him opposite the hapless Cram is anybody's guess.
Neither Cram nor sidekick Rhona Martin were on the edge of their seats as confirmed by an unforgiving BBC camera which swung their way just as he said it, revealing the pair in full recline mode and showing no sign of inching forward towards the precipice that the ex-middle distance man had alluded to.
SIR - It seems to me that Dr Alan Cram is trying to prevent an open discussion among readers by requesting you to ban letters by people he does not agree with.