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(1) In anatomy, cristae are bony projections in vertebrate animals and man that serve to attach muscle tendons to the bones.

(2) In cytology, cristae are folds that protrude into the cavities of mitochondria and partially partition them. Cristae substantially increase the inner surface of the mitochondria. They are probably formed from processes of the inner membrane. In spherical mitochondria the cristae are oriented radially; in elongated ones they are most often perpendicular to the longitudinal axis. The thickness of the cristae is about 160 angstroms. A direct relationship is thought to exist between the number of cristae and the activity of oxidative processes in the mitochondria. The number of cristae in different cells varies. For example, the mitochondria of liver cells contain few cristae, and heart muscle cells have many cristae. The mitochondria of many tissues have few cristae in the early stages of embryogeny, but with an increase in energy metabolism their number increases. The number of cristae also changes under the influence of various factors (shifts in osmotic pressure and temperature, narcotics).


References in periodicals archive ?
Earlier research reports described damaged or immature cristae in several animal species with compromised ATP synthase, but until now, no explanation or evidence existed to link this process to stem cell development.
Our team plans further investigations into precisely how ATP synthase biologically controls cristae development, and whether other developmental roles are influenced by mitochondria," said Lehmann.
Anterior margin of notogaster has two pairs of protuberances; notogastral cristae and humeral process.
The cristae had been severely damaged and decreased in quantity in these patients," Francisco J.
In parasitized larvae, the mitochondria increase in quantity in both midgut regions, the majority of them presenting few cristae and lower electron dense matrix (Figures 1f-k) than in non-parasitized larvae.
Head angular velocity is measured by the cristae of the semicircular canals, while the maculae of the statolabyrinth (utricle and saccule) register linear acceleration and changes in the gravitational force.