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member of the abundant and varied family Sciaenidae, carnivorous, spiny-finned fishes including the weakfishes, the drums, and the kingcroakers (or kingfish). The croaker has a compressed, elongated body similar to that of the bass. The name describes the croaking or grunting sounds produced by members of most species, chiefly during the breeding season. Croakers are found in sandy shallows of all temperate and warm seas. They range in weight from the 1-lb (0.5-kg) Atlantic croaker to the 150-lb (68-kg) common drum. The Atlantic croaker, common from Cape Cod to Texas, is an important food fish. The spot-fin croaker is found in the Pacific. The drums, the largest and noisiest croakers, include the red drum, or channel bass, of which over 2 million lb (900,000 kg) are taken per year off Florida; the common, or black, drum, found from New England to the Rio Grande; and the freshwater drum, found in central North America. The kingcroakers or kingfishes, also known as whitings, include the Northern kingfish, kingcroaker, or king whiting; the Southern kingcroaker, kingfish, or king whiting, also known as the sea mink; the gulf kingcroaker or kingfish, also known as the surf whiting; and the corbina of the Pacific. All average 3 lb (1.4 kg) in weight and 2 ft (60 cm) in length. Croakers are bottom feeders; those mentioned above have sensitive chin barbels to aid in locating their prey. The weakfishes, named for their easily torn flesh, lack barbels; they are also called sea trout. The common weakfish, or squeteague, abundant along the Atlantic coast, grows to 12 lb (5.5 kg) in weight and 3 ft (90 cm) in length. The more southerly spotted weakfish is similar. The white sea bass, weighing up to 60 lb (27 kg), is a Pacific croaker found as far north as Puget Sound. The spot, a small croaker, is commercially important in Virginia and the Carolinas, where the annual catch is estimated at 10 million lb (4.5 million kg) or more. Croakers are classified in the phylum ChordataChordata
, phylum of animals having a notochord, or dorsal stiffening rod, as the chief internal skeletal support at some stage of their development. Most chordates are vertebrates (animals with backbones), but the phylum also includes some small marine invertebrate animals.
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, subphylum Vertebrata, class Actinopterygii, order Perciformes, family Sciaenidae.
References in periodicals archive ?
Protein hydrolysate wastes of whitemouth croaker (Micropogonias furnieri) as a way of adding value to fish and reducing the environmental liabilities of the fishing industry.
Zuyev GV and VE Giragosov The reproduction biology and production characteristics of three species of croakers (sciaenidae) along the Guinea coast (Abstract), 1990.
Because of wide variability in Atlantic croaker densities, there were no significant differences among habitat types.
Several finfish species were almost exclusively restricted to the western Gulf and included Atlantic croaker (Fig.
All captured specimens of spot and Atlantic croaker were anesthetized in MS 222 and then fixed in a 10% formalin solution in the field.
In the bays, the white-shrimp stands out, while in the open sea, besides the croaker, the seasonal species such as the codling, bluefish and mullet are also important.
They will raise their worries with Vernon Croaker MP, the Minister for Crime Reduction, at a major crime-busting conference in Birmingham on June 18.
Samurai sword crime is low in volume but high in profile and I recognize it can have a devastating impact,'' Home Office Minister Vernon Croaker said in a statement Monday.
The arrests total at League matches was the lowest since records began, Home Office Minister Vernon Croaker said.
Croaker SS256, now in Buffalo at the Maritime Museum; the U.
The majority of those surveyed--73 percent--indicated that they routinely ate fish caught from the bay, including bass and white croaker (kingfish), both currently on bay fish consumption advisories due to contamination.