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cross-tabulationa contingency table method of displaying data by a 2 x 2 table in order to examine the relationship between two VARIABLES with a view to providing explanations; for example, the investigation of Heath et al. (1991) of the 1987 election showed that class is still an important variable in explaining voting behaviour. See Fig. 7.
If, as above, an association appears to exist, other variables may be introduced by further dividing the categories (e.g. by sex and age). The purpose of displaying data in this way is not only to examine what relationship there may be between variables, but to explore this relationship by the further breakdowns that may be made, e.g. by eliminating 'S purious’ relationships, explained by the prior influence of a third variable, or 'S pecifying’ the interaction between three or more variables. See also LAZARSFELD, CORRELATION, MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS.