fiber

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fiber,

threadlike strand, usually pliable and capable of being spun into a yarn. Many different fibers are known to be usable; some 40 of these are of commercial importance, and others are of local or specialized use. Fibers may be classified as either natural or synthetic. The natural fibers may be further classed according to origin as animal, vegetable, or inorganic fibers.

Animal fibers are composed chiefly of proteins; they include silksilk,
fine, horny, translucent, yellowish fiber produced by the silkworm in making its cocoon and covered with sericin, a protein. Many varieties of silk-spinning worms and insects are known, but the silkworm of commerce is the larva of the Bombyx mori,
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, woolwool,
fiber made from the fleece of the domestic sheep. Composition and Characteristics

Wool consists of the cortex, overlapping scales (sharper and more protruding than those of hair) that may expand at their free edges causing fibers to intermesh; elasticum, the
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, and hair of the goat (known as mohairmohair,
hair of the Angora goat or a large group of fabrics made from it, either wholly or in combination with wool, silk, or cotton. The Angora goat, native of Asia Minor for 2,000 years, is bred in other lands, e.g., the SW United States and South Africa.
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), llama and alpacaalpaca
, partially domesticated South American mammal, Lama pacos, of the camel family. Genetic studies show that it is a descendant of the vicuña. Although the flesh is sometimes used for food, the animal is bred chiefly for its long, lustrous wool, which varies
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, vicuñavicuña
, wild South American hoofed mammal, Vicugna vicugna, the smallest member of the camel family. It is 30 in. (75 cm) high at the shoulder, with a long, slender neck and pale, fawn coloring.
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, camel, horse, rabbit, beaver, hog, badger, sablesable,
species of marten, Martes zibellina, found in Siberia, N European Russia, and N Finland. This carnivorous mammal is highly valued for its thick, soft fur, which is dark brown or black, sometimes with white underparts and sometimes flecked with silver.
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, and other animals. Vegetable fibers are composed chiefly of cellulose and may be classed as short fibers, e.g., cottoncotton,
most important of the vegetable fibers, and the plant from which the fiber is harvested. The Cotton Plant

The cotton plant belongs to the genus Gossypium of the family Malvaceae (mallow family).
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 and kapokkapok
, name for a tropical tree of the family Bombacaceae (bombax family) and for the fiber (floss) obtained from the seeds in the ripened pods. The floss has been important in commerce since the 1890s; the chief source is Ceiba pentandra,
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; or long fibers, including flaxflax,
common name for members of the Linaceae, a family of annual herbs, especially members of the genus Linum, and for the fiber obtained from such plants. The flax of commerce (several varieties of L.
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, hemphemp,
common name for a tall annual herb (Cannabis sativa) of the family Cannabinaceae, native to Asia but now widespread because of its formerly large-scale cultivation for the bast fiber (also called hemp) and for the drugs it yields.
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, Manila hempManila hemp,
the most important of the cordage fibers. It is obtained chiefly from the Manila hemp plant (Musa textilis) of the family Musaceae (banana family). It is grown mainly in its native Philippine Islands, where it has been cultivated since the 16th cent.
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, istle, ramie, sisal hempsisal hemp
[from Sisal, former chief port of Yucatan], important cordage fiber obtained from the leaves of the sisal hemp plant, an extensively cultivated tropical agave (family Agavaceae or Liliaceae).
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, and Spanish mossSpanish moss,
fibrous grayish-green epiphyte (Tillandsia usneoides) that hangs on trees of tropical America and the Southern states, also called Florida, southern, or long moss. It is not a true moss but a member of the pineapple family, and has inconspicuous flowers.
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. The chief natural inorganic fiber is asbestosasbestos,
common name for any of a variety of silicate minerals within the amphibole and serpentine groups that are fibrous in structure and more or less resistant to acid and fire. Chrysotile asbestos, a form of serpentine, is the chief commercial asbestos.
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. Fibers are also derived from other inorganic substances that can be drawn into threads, e.g., metals (especially gold and silver). Artificial fibers can be produced either by the synthesis of polymers (nylonnylon,
synthetic thermoplastic material characterized by strength, elasticity, resistance to abrasion and chemicals, low moisture absorbency, and capacity to be permanently set by heat. After 10 years of research E. I.
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) or by the alteration of natural fibers (rayonrayon,
synthetic fibers made from cellulose or textiles woven from such fibers; more rayon is manufactured than any other synthetic fiber. The name was adopted (1924), in preference to "artificial silk," by the U.S. Dept. of Commerce and various commercial associations.
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).

Fibers are classified according to use as textile, cordage, brush, felt, filling, and plaiting fibers. The largest volume is used for textiles and cordage. The chief textile fibers used for clothing and domestic goods are cotton, wool, rayon, nylon, flax, and silk. Coarse-textured fibers (principally jute) are used for burlap, floor covering, sacks, and bagging materials. Cordage fibers include most of the long vegetable fibers and cotton. Brush fibers include istle, sisal, broomcorn, palmyra, and animal hairs. The chief felt fibers are rabbit and beaver hair. Filling fibers include horsehair, wool flock, kapok, cotton, and Spanish moss. Plaiting fibers are used for braided articles (e.g., hats, mats, and baskets) and include Manila hemp, sisal, rushes, and grasses.

Flax, hemp, and wool have been used extensively from remote times; cotton, however, became the leading commercial fiber c.1800. The demand for fibers was greatly increased by the invention of spinning and weaving machinery during the Industrial Revolution. The artificial fibers (see synthetic textile fiberssynthetic textile fibers
have revolutionized the textile industry. Such artificial fibers are usually long-chain polymers, produced industrially by the condensation of many small units.
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) have rapidly grown in diversity and extent of use since the development of rayon in 1884.

fiber

[′fī·bər]
(botany)
An elongate, thick-walled, tapering plant cell that lacks protoplasm and has a small lumen.
A very slender root.
(mathematics)
The set of points in the total space of a bundle which are sent into the same element of the base of the bundle by the projection map.
(metallurgy)
The characteristic of wrought metal that indicates directional properties as revealed by etching or by fracture appearance.
The pattern of preferred orientation of metal crystals after a deformation process, usually wiredrawing.
(optics)
A transparent threadlike object made of glass or clear plastic, used to conduct light along selected paths.
(textiles)
An extremely long, pliable, cohesive natural or manufactured threadlike object from which yarns are spun to be woven into textiles.

fibre

(US), fiber
1. a natural or synthetic filament that may be spun into yarn, such as cotton or nylon
2. cloth or other material made from such yarn
3. Botany
a. a narrow elongated thick-walled cell: a constituent of sclerenchyma tissue
b. such tissue extracted from flax, hemp, etc., used to make linen, rope, etc.
c. a very small root or twig
4. Anatomy any thread-shaped structure, such as a nerve fibre
References in periodicals archive ?
The observed increased crude protein, crude fiber and fat digestibility in this case is supported by the reports of Noy and Sklan [12]; Vukic and Wenk [18] and Taibipour and Kermanshahi [16] that apparent metabolizable energy, lipid digestibility and protein digestibility were all significantly improved when arabinoxylanase and beta-glucanase enzymes were added to wheat-soybean meal-based diets.
Crude fiber content was analyzed at the end of the fermentation period according to AOAC method (AOAC, 2005).
Moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, Ca, P, and Fe contents in DOP were 10.
Proximate chemical composition of the seed flour including moisture, crude fat, crude protein, total ash and crude fiber were determined using AOAC official methods of 925.
1 g,- A protein content of at least 14%,- Crude fiber content below 9%- Salmonella - absent 0.
The proximate composition such as moisture, crude protein, crude lipid, crude fiber and ash content of the raw and differentially processed SD seed samples were determined by following AOAC method [7].
The moisture, CP, crude fiber and ash contents of the experimental diets, feces samples and body composition were determined according to standard AOAC methods (AOAC, 2002).
Dry matter, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, crude ash, N-free extracts, minerals, fatty acid composition, calculated energy values), active ingredient (eg.
Proximate analysis of forage samples were carried out to determine the DM, CP, crude fiber (CF), ether extract (EE) and ash content according to AOAC (1995).
5% percent chicken manure after fermentation was found to show a higher value of crude fiber compared with before fermentation respectively.
The contents of CP, ether extract, crude fiber, NDF, and ADF in CE and PKE were greater than those in CR (Table 1).
The quality parameters determined were weight loss, rate of sprouting, rot development and some nutritional parameters such as carbohydrates, calcium, phosphorus, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, and ash and moisture contents.