cryptochromes

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cryptochromes

[′krip·tə‚krōm]
(cell and molecular biology)
Light-sensitive proteins found in both plants and animals that detect and change conformation in response to blue light; in animals, they play an important role in circadian rhythm.
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In mammals, circadian rhythm is controlled by hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), and regulated by a transcriptional feedback loop with clock genes, such as circadian locomotor cycle kaput ( Clock ), Brain and muscle Arnt-like protein-1 ( Bmal1 ), Period ( Per ), Cryptochrome ( Cry ), Reverse erythroblastosis virus ( Rev-erb ), Retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor ( Rora ) genes, and their corresponding proteins.
Several studies have reported the most efficient hyphal branching at 390 and 430 nm (Nagahashi and Douds, 2003), similar to the cryptochrome region, which is defined by their action spectra with a typical broad band in the blue/UV-A region and a second band in the blue region (Lin, 2002).
Molecular cloning and circadian regulation of cryptochrome genes in the blind subterranean mole rat, Spalax ehrenbergi superspecies.
New research reveals it's all down to a protein called cryptochrome.
According to scientists' theories, light striking a cryptochrome produces a pair of radicals--molecules with a singleton electron.
More precisely, the molecular clock in the retina is controlled by two feedback-loops: one is positive and consists of the transcription factors BMAL1 and CLOCK, activating in a heterodimeric form transcription of the PERIOD and CRYPTOCHROME genes.
The core loop includes a brain and muscle ARNT-like protein 1/circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (Bmal1/clock) heterodimer that binds to Enhancer Box (E-box) containing elements on the promoters of the core clock genes, period (Per1, Per2, Per3), and cryptochrome (Cry1, Cry2) [1, 2].
Circadian control of XPA and excision repair of cisplatin-DNA damage by cryptochrome and HERC2 ubiquitin ligase.
Manipulation of the blue light photoreceptor cryptochrome 2 in tomato affects vegetative development, flowering time and fruit antioxidant content.
This can be done in fruit flies because roughly half of their circadian neurons directly express a light sensing protein called cryptochrome that is responsible for the light resetting signal.
Blue light-induced morphological adjustments are often mediated by blue light receptors such as cryptochrome (Taiz and Zeiger 2010).