In 1611, Johannes Kepler proposed that identical spheres can crowd together no more tightly than oranges do in a grocer's stack, a formation called face-centered cubic packing
The densest known packing in three dimensions, called the face-centered cubic packing
, is familiar to anyone who has seen neat piles of oranges at fruit stands.
Two random packing approaches, pouring and raining, were compared to the face--centered cubic packing
Such an arrangement is known as face-centered cubic packing.
In the 19th century, Carl Friedrich Gauss proved that face-centered cubic packing is the densest arrangement in which the centers of the spheres form a regular lattice.