At the same time, these shallow cultigens
were more vulnerable to enhanced, westerly wind erosion, especially after AD 1650.
The social effects of such differences in labour can be seen when observing seaweed farmers who use the same artful hands and thoughtful minds to groom their children's hair at twilight that they use to clean their cultigen
during the day.
Ina similar vein, Koba Jawa's adherence to a distinctive clan nursing recipe (Soya bean and maize) may be explained by its connection with the clan's name ('Soya vines') anda clan plant taboo, as well as the clan's singular status as the only group named after an edible cultigen
and their northward and westward migration in pre-Columbian times.
Interestingly, the researchers found a "nine-fold increase in total carotenoids provided within orange-red and yellow-orange colored cultigens
versus yellow colored cultigens
frontier expansion, deforestation, the draining of lakes and marshes, terracing at higher elevations), the switch to early ripening varieties of rice, double-cropping, an increasing use of beancake fertilizer, the adoption of New World cultigens
for more marginal soils (corn, peanuts, sweet potatoes), the expansion of textile handicrafts within the peasant household, widening circuits of commercial exchange--all these enhancements in overall production do not appear to have generated a proportional growth in the available surplus, as an accelerating population surge literally consumed the higher levels of output that were being attained through intensifications.
The seeds of unbranched (single-headed) Native American land races, the earliest cultigens
, are significantly larger than the seeds of wild populations, partly because unbranched biotypes have larger capitula and seeds than branched biotypes, and partly because sunflower was domesticated by selecting for larger seeds (Ross, 1939; Heiser, 1951, 1977; Dedio, 1980).
This process has resulted in the weakening of the vertical use of the environment, the concentration of agricultural activities into a sole altitudinal level, the loss of some cultigens
proper of abandoned areas and in the increase in the pressure of use in permanent locations.
However, the cultivation of padi (Oryza sativa) and other cultigens
such as maize, tubers, vegetables, and fruit trees in swiddens (uma) is central to their diet.
In later stages, human alteration of the landscape is clearly detectable due to the virtual explosion of cultigens
, especially during the last 3 ka.
However, unlike the better known Plains Village Pattern, these areas generally lack evidence for any cultigen
other than maize and cultigens
such as sunflowers, beans, squash, and tobacco.
Fences, pest and weed controls, and introduced cultigens
flattened once-diverse field biotas.