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tilling or manipulation of the soil, done primarily to eliminate weeds that compete with crops for water and nutrients. Cultivation may be used in crusted soils to increase soil aeration and infiltration of water; it may also be used to move soil to or away from plants as desired. Cultivation among crop plants is best kept at a minimum; excessive cultivation can be harmful as it may cause root pruning and loss of soil water due to increased evaporation.



the loosening of tilled soil, without turning it over, and removal of weeds. Cultivation improves the air and water conditions in the soil, promotes the work of soil micro-organisms, and ensures optimal conditions for germination of the seeds of crop plants and their growth and development. Cultivation creates a loose layer on the surface of the soil that prevents moisture from rising by capillary action and rapidly evaporating from the soil surface. In addition it levels the plowed soil and is an effective means of combating weeds. Both trailing and mounted cultivators with various types of working parts are used. Cultivation is complete when the entire field is worked. The loosening of only the middle of the row of row and other crops is called interrow cultivation.

Complete cultivation is used in working land plowed in late fall and fallow land. As a rule fall-plowed land is cultivated in the spring to loosen the surface layer of the soil, which has become compacted during the winter, to improve air access, to accelerate soil warming, and to kill weeds. Spring cultivation of fall-plowed land before planting early spring crops is done a few days after harrowing or smoothing. At this time the soil is cultivated to the depth at which the seed will be placed in order to kill weed sprouts and to create a firm bed for the seed beneath the loose surface layer. Fall-plowed land is cultivated two or three times for weed control before planting late spring crops. The cultivation of fallow is particularly important in dry regions, where other methods of tillage, involving turning over the soil, cause considerable loss of moisture. To make the soil surface more level in the spring and to preserve moisture, complete cultivation of fallow and fall-plowed land is usually accompanied by harrowing. The first cultivation of fallow in the spring is done at a depth of 10–12 cm, with subsequent cultivations (during the summer) gradually reduced to 6–8 cm.


Zemledelie, 2nd ed. Edited by S. A. Vorob’ev. Moscow, 1972.


References in classic literature ?
The soft and gentle river Don sweeps through an amphitheatre, in which cultivation is richly blended with woodland, and on a mount, ascending from the river, well defended by walls and ditches, rises this ancient edifice, which, as its Saxon name implies, was, previous to the Conquest, a royal residence of the kings of England.
These sentiments are wise; they are honorable; they are virtuous; their cultivation is not merely innocent pleasure, it is incumbent duty.
Could that which procures a freer vent for the products of the earth, which furnishes new incitements to the cultivation of land, which is the most powerful instrument in increasing the quantity of money in a state -- could that, in fine, which is the faithful handmaid of labor and industry, in every shape, fail to augment that article, which is the prolific parent of far the greatest part of the objects upon which they are exerted?
What farmer or manufacturer will lay himself out for the encouragement given to any particular cultivation or establishment, when he can have no assurance that his preparatory labors and advances will not render him a victim to an inconstant government?
Subjection of Nature's forces to man, machinery, application of chemistry to industry and agriculture, steam-navigation, railways, electric telegraphs, clearing of whole continents for cultivation, canalisation of rivers, whole populations conjured out of the ground -- what earlier century had even a presentiment that such productive forces slumbered in the lap of social labour?
Every plant and flower and vegetable and animal has been so refined by ages of careful, scientific cultivation and breeding that the like of them on Earth dwindled into pale, gray, characterless nothingness by comparison.
It is very natural; this island is a mass of rocks, and does not contain an acre of land capable of cultivation.
Collins invited them to take a stroll in the garden, which was large and well laid out, and to the cultivation of which he attended himself.
The travellers were now entering one of those great steppes of the Far West, where the prevalent aridity of the atmosphere renders the country unfit for cultivation.
But there are other journalists, I feel certain, men of education and cultivation, who really dislike publishing these things, who know that it is wrong to do so, and only do it because the unhealthy conditions under which their occupation is carried on oblige them to supply the public with what the public wants, and to compete with other journalists in making that supply as full and satisfying to the gross popular appetite as possible.
I should think them too indolent to devote any attention to its culture; and, indeed, as far as my observation extended, not a single atom of the soil was under any other cultivation than that of shower and sunshine.
In addition to this show of cultivation were two rows of young Lombardy poplars, a tree but lately introduced into America, formally lining either side of a pathway which led from a gate that opened on the principal street to the front door of the building.