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tilling or manipulation of the soil, done primarily to eliminate weeds that compete with crops for water and nutrients. Cultivation may be used in crusted soils to increase soil aeration and infiltration of water; it may also be used to move soil to or away from plants as desired. Cultivation among crop plants is best kept at a minimum; excessive cultivation can be harmful as it may cause root pruning and loss of soil water due to increased evaporation.



the loosening of tilled soil, without turning it over, and removal of weeds. Cultivation improves the air and water conditions in the soil, promotes the work of soil micro-organisms, and ensures optimal conditions for germination of the seeds of crop plants and their growth and development. Cultivation creates a loose layer on the surface of the soil that prevents moisture from rising by capillary action and rapidly evaporating from the soil surface. In addition it levels the plowed soil and is an effective means of combating weeds. Both trailing and mounted cultivators with various types of working parts are used. Cultivation is complete when the entire field is worked. The loosening of only the middle of the row of row and other crops is called interrow cultivation.

Complete cultivation is used in working land plowed in late fall and fallow land. As a rule fall-plowed land is cultivated in the spring to loosen the surface layer of the soil, which has become compacted during the winter, to improve air access, to accelerate soil warming, and to kill weeds. Spring cultivation of fall-plowed land before planting early spring crops is done a few days after harrowing or smoothing. At this time the soil is cultivated to the depth at which the seed will be placed in order to kill weed sprouts and to create a firm bed for the seed beneath the loose surface layer. Fall-plowed land is cultivated two or three times for weed control before planting late spring crops. The cultivation of fallow is particularly important in dry regions, where other methods of tillage, involving turning over the soil, cause considerable loss of moisture. To make the soil surface more level in the spring and to preserve moisture, complete cultivation of fallow and fall-plowed land is usually accompanied by harrowing. The first cultivation of fallow in the spring is done at a depth of 10–12 cm, with subsequent cultivations (during the summer) gradually reduced to 6–8 cm.


Zemledelie, 2nd ed. Edited by S. A. Vorob’ev. Moscow, 1972.


References in periodicals archive ?
RAWALPINDI -- Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University Rawalpindi (PMAS-AAUR) and Italian Agency for Development Cooperation (AICS) have agreed to initiate collaborative research projects in the field of agriculture, particularly for promotion of Olive cultivation in the country.
They discussed the possibilities of collaboration in academic, research, training and value chain activities for the development of olive cultivation.
In the meeting it was decided that they will work together to create awareness among farming community for olive cultivation.
T1 = 1 MB plowing + 8 cultivations, T2 = 1 MB plowing + 4 cultivations, T3 = 1 disc harrowing + 4 cultivations, T4 = 1 chisel plowing + glyphosate, T5 = 1 MB plowing + glyphosate, T6 = 1 disc harrowing + glyphosate, T7 = no-till + glyphosate.
In first treatment, deep tillage with moldboard plough at the onset of moon soon was done followed by eight shallow cultivations with cultivator applied after each rainfall including seedbed preparation.
arvensis was found for single mould board ploughing integrated with glyphosate (1 MB plowing + glyphosate) which was significantly similar for no tilled treatments applied with glyphosate (No-till + glyphosate) and single MB ploughing following cultivation four times (1 MB plowing + 4 cultivations).
Clifford (1994) and Nunes (2001) suggest that, in semi-intensive cultivations, the density of phytoplankton should remain in 80,000 and 120,000 cel.
But Chien (1992) says that, in Taiwan, in intensive cultivations, the total densities of algae were between 100,000 to 10,000,000 cel.
1] with the use of sodium nitrate, higher than the figures found in both semi-intensive and intensive cultivations, which used probiotics for algae increase.
It was a large group involved in numerous cultivations in numerous counties,'' said Sgt.
I've been at cultivations were they've had deer and bear skin and found calendars that go on for months.
Though their procedures are kept confidential, officials said that they will routinely conduct helicopter flyovers to look for possible cultivations and work in conjunction with state and federal organizations to locate and eradicate gardens.