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kumquat(kŭm`kwŏt), ornamental shrub of the genus Fortunella of the family Rutaceae (ruerue,
common name for various members of the family Rutaceae, a large group of plants distributed throughout temperate and tropical regions and most abundant in S Africa and Australia. Most species are woody shrubs or small trees; many are evergreen and bear spines.
..... Click the link for more information. family), closely related to the orange and other citrus fruitscitrus fruits,
widely used edible fruits of plants belonging to Citrus and related genera of the family Rutaceae (orange family). Included are the tangerine, citrange, tangelo, orange, pomelo, grapefruit, lemon, lime, citron, and kumquat.
..... Click the link for more information. . It has evergreen leaves, sweet-scented white flowers, and small, orange-yellow edible fruits which are eaten fresh or in preserves. Three or four types of the kumquat, which is probably native to China, are cultivated as house and hedge plants in the Gulf states and in California. They are much hardier than most oranges. The kumquat is also called kinkan. Kumquats are classified in the division MagnoliophytaMagnoliophyta
, division of the plant kingdom consisting of those organisms commonly called the flowering plants, or angiosperms. The angiosperms have leaves, stems, and roots, and vascular, or conducting, tissue (xylem and phloem).
..... Click the link for more information. , class Magnoliopsida, order Sapindales, family Rutaceae.
(genus Fortunella), evergreen fruit trees or shrubs of the family Rutaceae. The leaves are small and dark green. The flowers are white, small, single or in clusters, and perfect. The fruit is up to 2 cm in diameter, round or oval, and yellow-orange in color, with a rind that is smooth, very fragrant, sweet, and edible; the pulp is sweet and acid.
Kumquat is quite frost-resistant (surviving short-term frosts up to 12°C). It grows well in the humid subtropics of the USSR and bears fruit on both acid and slightly alkaline soils. It is native to eastern Asia. There are six species in China, Japan, and on the Malay Archipelago and two species in the USSR (both cultivated)—the Nagami, or oval, kumquat (F. margarita) and the Marumi kumquat (F.japónica). The fruit is used for jams and candied peels. Kumquats are grown as ornamentals and are used in plant breeding for developing frost-resistant forms of citrus fruits. They are propagated by grafting on all species of citrus plants and on Poncirus trifoliata. They are cultivated in the same manner as other citrus crops.
REFERENCESEkimov, V. P. Subtropicheskoe plodovodstvo. Moscow, 1955.
Zhukovskii, P. M. Kul’turnye rasteniia i ikh sorodichi, 3rd ed. Leningrad, 1971.
A. D. ALEKSANDROV