Its active ingredient, cuprous oxide
, is not used as an antifouling agent and remains firmly fixed in the matrix of the paint, its dispersion rate extremely low.
The anti-fouling product uses a capillary leach where the cuprous oxide
particle is actually bound to the polymer, so when it's applied what you have is a microscopic latticework," said Bell.
When paired with cuprous oxide
in a coating, Sea-Nine 211 controls a wide array of common soft and hard-fouling organisms, including bacterial slime, algae, barnacles, hydroids, bryozoa and diatoms.
Econea is a metal-free alternative to cuprous thiocyanate and cuprous oxide
in traditional antifouling coatings for marine applications.
Stir thoroughly before and during painting because cuprous oxide
Since the ban on the use of tributyl tin as an antifoulant active in marine coatings, the combination of cuprous oxide
and a co-biocide (algaecide) has been the system of choice.
Cupron's proprietary technology permanently integrates cuprous oxide
particles in textile fibers, non-woven fabrics, paper, latex and other polymeric products.
Marine fungicide consumption in Asia, excluding cuprous oxide
, was just over seven million pounds worth $77 million in 2008 and an eight percent annual rate of growth is forecast.
And in the marine antifoulant sector, the International Maritime Organization's ban on TBTO has led to increased consumption of cuprous oxide
in China, which is one of the world's leading shipbuilding countries.
Under the joint venture, SCM will supply Cupron Advanced Materials with cuprous oxide
made from recycled copper.
Table 1--Coating Biocide Consumption by Region in 2008 ($MM) Type/Region North Europe Asia Rest of Total America World Dry film and preservative 150 175 100 30 455 Marine, excluding cuprous 6 15 77 7 105 oxide (a) Total 156 190 177 37 560 (a) Cuprous oxide
, nearly 120 MM lb in 2008; price varies with copper price.
Another niche in the market is copper-free antifoulings, even though cuprous oxide
is probably the biocide that has the most documentation as being environmentally sustainable.