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(1) In ancient Rome, an association of certain patrician families (gentes) that was analogous to the Greek phratry. According to tradition there were 30 curiae, ten in each tribe. Originally the curia was part of the clan organization—possibly, a men’s group connected with coming-of-age ceremonies. (There is evidence for this hypothesis in the worship of the goddess Juno, which was associated with initiations—rituals during which a youth was consecrated as a man.) During the period when the state was formed the curiae became extremely important military and political cells in Roman society. Evidently, each curia was headed by an elected curio who had priestly functions. Each curia had its own place for holding assemblies (which was also called the curia), as well as its own sanctuaries.

The curiate assembly (comitia curiata)— that is, assembly of male soldiers—elected kings during the royal period and magistrates in the early stages of the republic. But with the establishment of the centuriate assembly (comitia centuriata), the curiae confirmed elected officials and entrusted the symbols of authority to them. Under the republic all the curiae were headed by a grand curio, and plebeians were allowed to vote in the curiate assembly. During the imperial period the curiae came to be known as municipal councils.

(2) In Western Europe during the Middle Ages the feudal curia was a council consisting of a lord and his vassals. The royal curia (Curia Regis)—a feudal curia made up of the king’s direct vassals—was an advisory assembly of feudal magnates convoked by the king and granted broad but not strictly defined functions, most of which were judicial. As the royal power grew stronger, this curia became a more limited council of the king’s closest advisers (the Royal Council). Moreover, financial and judicial affairs were assigned to special offices.

(3) The Roman curia (Curia Romana) is made up of a number of institutions that are subordinate to the pope.

(4) In bourgeois countries and in prerevolutionary Russia curiae were separate categories into which voters were divided according to property, nationality, and other criteria (electoral curiae).


The council house in a Roman municipality.
References in periodicals archive ?
The amicus curiae report submitted to the apex court had pointed out that the smuggling of gold out of the temple premises was with the knowledge of the "top echelons" of the administration.
43) The Netherlands, for example, has implemented these Council regulations through legislation because its civil procedure law did not previously allow amicus curiae.
32) The amicus brief "must include a concise statement of the identity of the amicus curiae and its interest in the case," and the "cover must identify the party or parties supported.
13) Moreover, the court overwhelmingly grants motions for amicus curiae relief.
In July 2004, the College filed a Brief for Amicus Curiae (5) with the Fifth Circuit, to request the court's permission to participate in oral arguments in the Strangi appeal.
As Jaffer observes--and this case illustrates--a strict reading of the gag requirement would make it difficult, if not impossible, for parties served with national security letters to seek counsel to challenge them in court, let alone recruit scholars to file amicus curiae briefs.
that a number of parties have filed an amicus curiae brief stating that a decision for Kasky would "chill the PR industry" and stifle public comment.
Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), arguing as amicus curiae on behalf of Boulware in front of the appellate court, relied heavily on a policy statement it issued in the Federal Register in October 2001 interpreting Section 8(b) as giving HUD the power to regulate settlement service charges.
A CalCPA task force headed by Amicus Curiae Chair John Costello has prepared a letter commenting on the Bar's report.
Renaissance Humanism and the Papal Curia: Lapo da Castiglionchio the Younger's De curiae commodis.
In a case in which the Appraisal Institute filed an amicus curiae or "friend of the court" brief, the Texas Supreme Court has ruled that expert opinions based on the subdivision development method can be reliable, relevant and admissible in some cases involving undeveloped land.
The AICPA's legal Department routinely files amicus curiae briefs in matters which may affect the CPA profession.