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(cell and molecular biology)
The science concerned with the chemistry of cells and cell components, primarily with the location of chemical constituents and enzymes.



a branch of cytology that studies the chemistry of cell structures and the location of chemical compounds within a cell and their transformations in connection with the functioning of the cell and its individual components.

Cytochemistry arose in the 1820’s chiefly owing to the research of the French botanist F. V. Raspail, who summarized his ideas on cytochemistry in his work Essaie de chimie microscopique appliquée à la physiologie (1830). Staining techniques were subsequently developed to observe carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, mineral compounds, and lipids under the microscope. The introduction of the use of aniline dyes in the late 19th and early 20th centuries led to major advances in cytochemistry. The principal approach in cytochemistry involves conducting appropriate chemical reactions in histological specimens and then evaluating them under a microscope. The evaluation may be qualitative (visual) or quantitative, using cytophotometry, autoradiography, and other methods.

The use of electron microscopy and immunochemical techniques in cytochemistry has been developing rapidly in recent years. Also used are microchemical methods, which make it possible to excise and examine individual cells, and centrifugation, which makes it possible to obtain tissue fractions abounding in certain types of cells or subcellular structures, such as nuclei, mitochondria, microsomes, and cytoplasmic membranes.

The main achievements of cytochemistry include the demonstration of the constant quantity of the DNA in the chromosome set, as well as the demonstration of the participation of macro-molecules (nucleic acids and proteins) in the specific functional activity of the cell and their migration within the cell from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and from the cell body to the outgrowths and back.


Pearse, A. G. E. Gistokhimiia teoreticheskaia i prikladnaia. Moscow, 1962. (Translated from English.)
Vvedenie v kolichestvennuiu tsitokhimiiu. Moscow, 1969. (Translated from English.)


References in periodicals archive ?
Ultrastructural and cytochemical studies on spermiogenesis of the beetle Cerotoma arcuata (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae).
This is not surprising given that lesional cells derived from classic and AIDS-related KS reveal identical cytochemical and molecular properties in vitro [13].
No studies have been performed in any animal species to determine if a similar genetic problem exists; however, cytochemical staining and flow cytometry have been used to identify leukocyte antigens in dogs to confirm the diagnosis of CML and further classify the cell lineage.
29) The significant increase observed of serum AFP and a-2macroglobulin in NDEA-group is in agreement with previous authers (29,30,31,32) who stated that [alpha]-FP and [alpha]-2M together might be linked to the rat hepatocarcinogenesis from initial stage to tumor progression even in conditions, which are undetectable, by established cytochemical markers and seems to be linked with their tumorgenicity.
Naidu, 1992) is a polychromatic stain, the staining results were remarkably good; and some cytochemical reactions were also obtained.
It is well recognised that tissue inflammation may, in turn, lead to a number of morphological and cytochemical changes within sensory neurons with resultant sensitisation of nerve fibres [Byers, 1994; Byers et al.
These nine papers address classic issues in cell apoptosis from the last few years, including the pro-and anti-apoptotic role of ubiquinone, cytochemical and apoptotic markers of tissue remodeling, chemical messengers as male germ cell apoptosis inducers, apoptosis in human ejaculated spermatozoa, reactive oxygen species-mediated apoptosis, photoinduced apaptosis by photosensitizer drugs, apoptosis during pregnancy and a paper that takes the position that snake-like chromatin is not a form of apoptosis.
Cytochemical features of this process may include positivity for PAS, acid phosphatase, B-EST, and A-EST uninhibited by fluoride.
Changes in the basic proteins associated with DNA during spermiogenesis were identified with alkaline fast green staining after DNA extraction with trichloroacetic acid and by cytochemical tests for arginine.
Biochemical and Cytochemical alterations in Liver and Kidney following experimental flurosis.
A cytochemical method of grading the malignancy of salivary gland tumours preoperatively.