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see mitosismitosis
, process of nuclear division in a living cell by which the carriers of hereditary information, or the chromosomes, are exactly replicated and the two copies distributed to identical daughter nuclei.
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The physical partitioning of a plant or animal cell into two daughter cells during cell reproduction. There are two modes of cytokinesis: by a constriction (the cleavage furrow in animal cells and some plant cells) or from within by an expanding cell plate (the phragmoplast of many plant cells). In either mode, cytokinesis requires only a few minutes, beginning at variable times after the segregation of chromosomes during mitosis (nuclear division). In the vast majority of cases the resulting daughter cells are completely separated. Since they are necessarily smaller cells as a result of cytokinesis, most cells grow in volume between divisions.

Occasionally, cytokinesis is only partial, permitting nutrients and metabolites to be shared between cells. Should cytokinesis fail to occur at all, mitosis may cause more than one nucleus to accumulate. Such a cell is a syncytium. Some tissues normally contain syncytia, for example, binucleate cells in the liver and multinucleate plant endosperm. Some whole organisms such as slime molds are syncytial.

Cytokinesis is precisely and indispensably linked to mitosis, yet the timing and actual mechanisms are distinct. The plane of cell partitioning is perpendicular to the axis of mitosis and coincides with the plane previously occupied by the chromosomes at metaphase. Despite the reliability of this correlation, the chromosomes themselves are not essential for cytokinesis. Experiments performed upon living cells have shown that it is the cell's machinery for chromosome separation, the mitotic apparatus, that provides the essential positional signal to other parts of the cytoplasm which initiates cytokinesis. Subsequently, the mitotic apparatus is no longer involved in cytokinesis and can be destroyed or even sucked out without affecting cytokinesis. See Chromosome, Mitosis

A cleavage furrow develops by circumferential contraction of the peripheral cytoplasm, usually at the cell's equator. The mechanism of furrowing is very similar among a wide diversity of cell types in lower and higher animals and certain plants. The physical forces of contraction exhibited by a cleavage furrow are evidently greater than the forces of resistance elsewhere. Electron microscopic analysis of the peripheral cytoplasm beneath the cleavage furrow consistently reveals a specialization called the contractile ring. This transient cell organelle is composed of numerous long, thin protein fibers oriented circumferentially within the plane of furrowing. These microfilaments are about 5 nanometers in thickness, appear to attach to the cell membrane, and are known to be composed of actin intermixed with myosin. Both of these proteins are intimately involved in force generation in muscle cells. Thus, the present theory of cytokinesis by furrowing implicates the contractile ring as a transient, localized intracellular “muscle” that squeezes the cell in two. See Muscle proteins

In plant cells the dominant mode of cytokinesis involves a phragmoplast, a structure composed of fibrous and vesicular elements that resemble parts of the mitotic apparatus. Microtubules (the fibers) appear to convey a stream of small membranous vesicles toward the midline where they fuse into a pair of partitioning cell membranes. Cellulose cell walls are subsequently secreted between these membranes to solidify the separation between daughter cells. This mode of cytokinesis is well suited to plant cells whose stiff cell walls cannot participate in furrowing. Surprisingly, however, there are instances among the algae where cleavage furrows are the normal mode of cytokinesis. Occasionally, both cleavage furrows and phragmoplasts are employed in the same cell. See Cell walls (plant), Plant cell



the division of a plant or animal cell; usually the final process in mitosis (seeMITOSIS).

The plane along which division occurs always crosses the mitotic spindle midway between the poles. Plant cells, which have a rigid cell wall, divide by way of a process called cell-plate formation, in which the plate, fusing with the side walls of the mother cell, splits the cell into two daughter cells. In animal cells, cytokinesis is accomplished by the formation of a division furrow, which develops around the outside of the cell and slowly divides the cytoplasm into two parts by ingression. The formation of the furrow is associated primarily with changes in the surface, or cortical, layer of the cell. Division of the cell body probably proceeds with the participation of the mitotic apparatus, which determines the plane in which the furrow appears, and the chromosomes (in the absence of chromosomes, cytokinesis slows down and incomplete furrows form). Both of these structures are believed to affect cytokinesis indirectly and only during the early stages of division. It is possible the chromosomes secrete chemical substances that affect the properties of the cortical layer.

The absence of cytokinesis during the final stage of mitosis (the telophase) occurs relatively frequently, resulting in the formation of binuclear cells.



(cell and molecular biology)
Division of the cytoplasm following nuclear division.
References in periodicals archive ?
Abnormal timing of cytokinesis in microsporogenesis in Brachiaria humidicola (Poaceae: Paniceae).
This paper will focus on the dynamics of cytokinesis in primitive cells based on this comprehensive model.
Microsporogenesis can be described as simultaneous if cytokinesis and callose deposition both occur after meiotic divisions are complete.
Embryos Exhibiting Abnormal First Cytokinesis Phenotypes Are Associated With Poorer Embryo Development And Lower Implantation Potential - Tuesday, October 15, 4:15-4:30 p.
At the stage of diakinesis (end of prophase I), when fully cellularized oocytes are positioned in a single continuous row in wild-type worms, we also detected unevenly spaced nuclei, suggesting a defect in cytokinesis (white arrows).
Comparative studies of sporogenesis including the mechanisms of meiosis, cytokinesis, and spore wall elaboration provide valuable information leading to a better understanding of evolutionary relationships among major groups of primitive land plants (Blackmore & Knox, 1990).
Aurora kinases A and B (AURKA and AURKB) are serine/threonine kinases that play an important role in chromosome alignment, segregation, and cytokinesis during mitosis.
Fourteen loci reached genome wide significance: 2 previously identified genes, [melatonin receptor 1B (MTNR1B) and IRS1] and 12 novel loci [B-cell CLL/lymphoma 11A (zinc finger protein) (BCL11A); zinc finger, BED-type containing 3 (ZBED3); Kruppel-like factor 14 (KLF14); tumor protein p53 inducible nuclear protein 1 (TP53INP1); transducin-like enhancer of split 4 (TLE4); coiled-coil-helix-coiled-coil-helix domain containing 9 (CHCHD9); KCNQ1; ArfGAP with RhoGAP domain, ankyrin repeat and PH domain 1(ARAP1); high mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2); HNF1A; zinc finger, AN1-type domain 6 (ZFAND6); protein regulator of cytokinesis 1 (PRC1); and dual specificity phosphatase 9 (D17SP9)] (Table 1).
PHI is a small GTPase of the Rho family with effects on cell growth, morphogenesis, cell motility, cytokinesis, trafficking, and organization of cell cytoskeleton, cell motility, transformation, and metastasis.
cdc12p, a protein required for cytokinesis in fission yeast, is a component of the cell division ring and interacts with profilin.
In the social amoeba, Dictyostelium discoideum, cell polarity is an essential component of cell morphology during both chemotaxis and cytokinesis.
Centriole is also involved in organizing the cytoskeleton, establishes cell polarity, and is involved in cytokinesis during the cell cycle.