chemotherapy

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chemotherapy

(kē'mōthĕr`əpē), treatment of disease with chemicals or drugsdrugs,
substances used in medicine either externally or internally for curing, alleviating, or preventing a disease or deficiency. At the turn of the century only a few medically effective substances were widely used scientifically, among them ether, morphine, digitalis,
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. One chemotherapeutic approach is the development of selectively toxic substances, i.e., substances that can destroy or inhibit infecting organisms or, as in cancer, malignant tissue, but do not damage normal host tissue. In treating infection, selectively toxic agents may block a biochemical reaction necessary to the viability of the pathogen but not to that of the host; for example, penicillinpenicillin,
any of a group of chemically similar substances obtained from molds of the genus Penicillium that were the first antibiotic agents to be used successfully in the treatment of bacterial infections in humans.
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 blocks synthesis of bacterial cell walls, a component animal cells lack. Other chemotherapeutic substances differentially affect biochemical reactions in different tissues; thus antimetabolites such as methotrexate and CytoxanCytoxan
, trade name for the drug cyclophosphamide, used to inhibit growth of tumors and rapidly proliferating cells. It is used in the treatment of leukemia, Hodgkin's disease, and lymphosarcoma and other solid tumors.
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 are more toxic to rapidly proliferating cells such as those associated with cancer than to normal cells. Other drugs act in various ways to produce effects that initiate or enhance some normal body function; for instance, neostigmine blocks the action of an enzyme limiting transmission of nerve impulses and thereby acts as a nervous system stimulant. The usefulness of chemotherapeutic agents also depends on their pharmacological action, e.g., their rate of absorption, rapidity of action and rate of excretion, degree of storage in the body, effects of products of their metabolic breakdown, and potential for causing hypersensitivityhypersensitivity,
heightened response in a body tissue to an antigen or foreign substance. The body normally responds to an antigen by producing specific antibodies against it. The antibodies impart immunity for any later exposure to that antigen.
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 reactions. Some drugs are given prophylactically, to prevent infection, e.g., penicillin is given to rheumatic fever patients to prevent reinfection by the causative organism, the streptococcal bacterium.

Chemotherapy

 

the use of drugs to act on the causative agents of infectious and parasitic diseases and on tumor cells. The treatment of disease by chemical agents was first practiced early in the 20th century, after P. Ehrlich demonstrated the directed synthesis of agents capable of acting on microorganisms. Ehrlich used salvarsan (the first potent agent in chemotherapy) in 1909 and established the principal mechanisms of the specific action of chemical agents.

REFERENCES

Ehrlich, P. Materialy k ucheniiu o khimioterapii. St. Petersburg, 1911. (Translated from German.)
Khimioterapiia infektsionnykh boleznei (collection of articles). Moscow, 1958.
Strategiia khimioterapii. Moscow, 1960. (Translated from English.)
Larionov, L. F. Khimioterapiia zlokachestvennykh opukholei. Moscow, 1962.
Votchal, B. E. Ocherki klinicheskoi farmakologii, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1965.
Kassirskii, I. A., and Iu. L. Milevskaia. Ocherki sovremennoi klinicheskoi terapii, 2nd ed. Tashkent, 1970.

chemotherapy

[‚kē·mō′ther·ə·pē]
(medicine)
Administering chemical substances for treatment of disease, especially cancer and diseases caused by parasites.

chemotherapy

treatment of disease, esp cancer, by means of chemical agents
References in periodicals archive ?
Table 28: Comparison of cytotoxic drug class sales ($m) in the seven major markets and Rest of the World, 2008 70
Further advances have been made by selecting cytotoxic drugs without drug resistance, by using peptide linkers instead of chemical moieties and by
The company's PSMA-ADC is a fully human monoclonal antibody to PSMA linked to a derivative of auristatin, a highly potent cytotoxic drug.
The polymer was linked to aminoglutethimide (a hormonal breast cancer treatment) and doxorubicin (a first-line cytotoxic drug for treating breast cancer).
GRN1005 is designed to deliver cytotoxic drug across the BBB and into tumors by exploiting a native mechanism by which essential substances, such as lipids and hormones, are actively transported into the brain through receptors.
For caregivers and their patients, the therapeutic area that is at the forefront of attempts to mitigate exposure to cytotoxic drugs is clinical oncology, a field that continues to rely heavily on antineoplastics, a class that includes alkylating agents and antimetabolites, to treat a wide range of cancers.
GRN1005 is designed to deliver cytotoxic drug across the BBB and into tumors by exploiting a natural mechanism by which essential substances, such as lipids and hormones, are actively transported into the brain through receptors.
Combine this with the fact that no new significant cytotoxic drug has come to market in the last 20 years, and the search for alternative forms of chemotherapy becomes rational.
OXS-1550 is a bispecific scFv recombinant fusion protein composed of the variable regions of the heavy and light chains of anti-CD19 and anti-CD22 antibodies and a modified form of diphtheria toxin as its cytotoxic drug payload.
The antibody is thought to specifically target and deliver the cytotoxic drug to the cancer cells.
The advantage of this is that the cytotoxic drug is liberated already in the surrounding of the tumour and therefore also reaches sites of the tumour, which are not accessible with conventional macromolecules.

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