cytotrophoblast


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cytotrophoblast

[¦sīd·ō′trō·fə‚blast]
(embryology)
The inner, cellular layer of a trophoblast, covering the chorion and the chorionic villi during the first half of pregnancy.
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The intrauterine environment in early stages of placentation is highly sensitive, and increases in oxidative stress can lead to apoptosis and altered cytotrophoblast turnover rate in the developing placenta (Burton et al.
Hypoxia impairs cell fusion and differentiation process in human cytotrophoblast in vitro.
IL-10 is an autocrine inhibitor of human placental cytotrophoblast MMP-9 production and invasion.
Trophoblast origin of hCG isoforms: cytotrophoblasts are the primary source of choriocarcinoma-like hCG.
3 (or17) [beta]-HSD activity: In normal placenta the syncytial cytoplasm of chorionic villi showed intense HSD activity whereas the cytotrophoblasts, villous mesenchyme and cells in the intervillous spaces were devoid of the oxidoreductase activity (Fig.
Oestradiol stimulates morphological and functional differentiation of human villous cytotrophoblast.
Synthesis of beta(2)-microglobulin-free, disulphide-linked HLA-G5 homodimers in human placental villous cytotrophoblast cells.
Demonstration of functional cytokine-placental interactions: CSF-1 and GM-CSF stimulate human cytotrophoblast differentiation and peptide hormone secretion.
Although hCG is produced principally by syncytiotrophoblasts, hyperglycosylated hCG (HhCG) is predominantly synthesized by the more invasive cytotrophoblast cells (7).
One main difference is that in humans the syncytiotrophoblasts arise from the fusion of cytotrophoblast cells and form a true syncytium with no lateral cell membranes, whereas in rats or mice three trophoblast layers are present between maternal blood and fetal blood capillaries (for comprehensive reviews, see Enders and Blankenship 1999; Takata et al.
From weeks 6-18 of gestation, the placenta achieves increasing access to the maternal blood supply by extensive remodeling of maternal spiral arteries through extravillous cytotrophoblast invasion (25).
7) showed that maspin is expressed in the cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast layers of the placenta, and that this expression is affected by gestational age.