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, czar
1. (until 1917) the emperor of Russia
2. Informal a public official charged with responsibility for dealing with a certain problem or issue
3. (formerly) any of several S Slavonic rulers, such as any of the princes of Serbia in the 14th century



(also, czar; from the latin caesar, the title used by the Roman emperors), in Russia and Bulgaria, the official title of the monarch. In Russia the title of tsar was first adopted by Ivan IV (Ivan the Terrible) in 1547. From 1721 the Russian tsars adopted the title of emperor. In Bulgaria the monarchs bore the title of tsar from the end of the 19th century to the proclamation of the People’s Republic in 1946.

References in periodicals archive ?
The condensed presentation of the book's core research findings on half a century of czarist policies in a mere one hundred pages testifies to the academic courage and, fortunately, sovereign command of the subject.
For that matter, there are no parallels between the Czarist Russia and India ruled by the Congress either.
Recreating a battle with cannons, horses and sabres is much more serious stuff than theater or a movie," Lithuanian history enthusiast Arvydas Pociunas, the Czarist Russian chief-of-staff for the day, said.
The first modification of the document he originally produced for Bianco, and appearing clearly as a Jewish conspiracy, is the one he prepares for Jakob Brafmann, a converted Jew who works for the Czarist secret police under Colonel Dimitri.
Russia's venerable Bolshoi Theater - which survived fires, a Nazi bombing and Lenin's order to close it down - is almost ready to reopen after years of reconstruction and will look just as it did during the czarist era.
c) Serge cloth in England ordered by the Czarist army in 1917?
Of special interest is the relationship between the Native people and czarist Russia and later, communist Russia.
He ended up running the show for the Okhrana, the Russian secret police, in Paris, where so many radicals considered dangerous to the czarist regime had immigrated.
A story of how a city keeps its soul and personality in a land where communist homogenization was the order of the day, the people of Sevastopol resembled something closer to Czarist Russia than Communist Russia when the reconstruction was complete.
He had been born into an aristocratic family with string links to Czarist Russia, joining the German army in the closing months of World War Two, where he was injured in an air raid and lost part of his leg.
Balfour, who gave his name to the declaration, was an earnest supporter of the 1905 Alien Act, which was specifically designed to stem the inflow into Britain of Jews who were fleeing from persecution in czarist Russia.