dairying


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dairying,

business of producing, processing, and distributing milk and milk products. Ninety percent of the world's milk is obtained from cows; the remainder comes from goats, buffaloes, sheep, reindeer, yaks, and other ruminants. In the United States, dairy products account for nearly 16% of the food consumed annually. California, Wisconsin, New York, Pennsylvania, and Minnesota are the top five dairy states. About 17% of the milk produced is made into butterbutter,
dairy product obtained by churning the fat from milk until it solidifies. In most areas the milk of cows is the basis, but elsewhere that of goats, sheep, and mares has been used. Butter was known by 2000 B.C.
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, 35%–40% is sold as beverage milkmilk,
liquid secreted by the mammary glands of female mammals as food for their young. The milk of the cow is most widely used by humans, but the milk of the mare, goat, ewe, buffalo, camel, ass, zebra, reindeer, llama, and yak is also used.
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, and the remainder is devoted to farm uses and the making of cheesecheese,
food known from ancient times and consisting of the curd of milk separated from the whey. The Production of Cheese

The milk of various animals has been used in the making of cheese: the milk of mares and goats by the ancient Greeks, camel's milk by the
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, concentrated milks, ice cream, dried milk solids (e.g., lactoselactose
or milk sugar,
white crystalline disaccharide (see carbohydrate). It has the same empirical formula (C12H22O11) as sucrose (cane sugar) and maltose but differs from both in structure (see isomer).
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 and caseincasein
, well-defined group of proteins found in milk, constituting about 80% of the proteins in cow's milk, but only 40% in human milk. Casein is a remarkably efficient nutrient, supplying not only essential amino acids, but also some carbohydrates and the inorganic elements
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), yogurt and sour cream, and other processed products. About 60% of total beverage milk sold is low-fat or skim milk, which surpassed whole milk in sales in 1987.

The development of modern dairying, which began around 1850, has been driven by the growth of urban markets and by scientific, technological, and economic factors: the invention of specialized machines, notably the cream separator (see separator, creamseparator, cream,
dairy machine used to separate fresh whole milk into cream and skim milk. Formerly the separation was made by the gravity method, allowing the cream to rise to the top of a pan and then skimming it off. C. G.
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) and mechanized milking machines (and more recently automatic, or robotic, milking machines); research in chemistry, physics, and bacteriology; the discovery of pasteurizationpasteurization
, partial sterilization of liquids such as milk, orange juice, wine, and beer, as well as cheese, to destroy disease-causing and other undesirable organisms.
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; the introduction of the test devised by American agricultural chemist S. M. Babcock for determining the fat content of milk; improved refrigeration and transportation; the discovery of new uses for the byproducts of milk processing; and increased milk productivity resulting from scientific feeding of cattlecattle,
name for the ruminant mammals of the genus Bos, and particularly those of the domesticated species, Bos taurus and B. indica. The term oxen, broadly used, refers also to closely related animals, such as the buffalo and the bison.
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 and the application of advanced biotechnology to breeding. Traditional small-scale dairy farms have increasingly been replaced by larger operations with herds of 1,000 cows or more.

Bibliography

See G. Schmidt and L. D. Van Vleck, Principles of Dairy Science (1988); K. Russell and K. Slater, The Principles of Dairy Farming (11th ed. 1991).

References in periodicals archive ?
Or if faltering economic conditions made low-tech, grass-fed dairying the only affordable approach, farmers might again want animals that can produce a lot of milk without coddling.
He said: "Domestic production is continuing to decline and the average age of producers remains dangerously high, therefore, I think there are real opportunities for young people like myself who are prepared to commit to dairying in the long term.
While appreciating the challenges facing anyone on the wrong side of the corn/horn divide, and taking account of what I've just said on dairying, I believe the overall picture for agriculture has remained pretty sound, certainly in comparison with non-farming businesses.
However, the evidence of an end to breeding flock contraction in New Zealand after a long period during which producers have been switching from sheep to dairying and forestry raises disturbing questions about longer term trends -- will the New Zealanders try to build up volumes again the UK market, having relatively few other large scale outlets available, and what will be the effects on price given the continuing long-term downtrend in consumer demand for lamb?
As the Foreword says, this text sets out to be an up-to-date source of information on dairying and the dairy industry in the European Community.
Just over 60% of agriculture students said they were interested in a career in dairying, with 80% of those actually committed to milking cows.
New Delhi, Mar 18 (ANI): The Government of India has approved the proposal of the Department of Animal Husbandry, Dairying and Fisheries, Ministry of Agriculture for continuation of India's participation in the Bay of Bengal Programme Inter-Governmental Organization (BOBP-IGO) beyond April 2008.
An average of nearly three farmers left dairying every day in the past 12 months, including some of the more progressive and business-oriented producers.
Producers are to be asked for views on how they feel dairying in Wales should progress to serve the modern marketplace.
Milk Marque faces the difficult task of talking up prices for its 16,000 members -- since the last selling round it has lost the equivalent of 5% of its thoughput to "retirements" (producers leaving dairying for whatever reason) or "the highly competitive marketplace" (producers leaving Milk Marque to sell directly).
However, the NFU has received a number of concerning reports from young dairy farmers who have expansion plans that have been caught out by these events, as well as a number of progressive, enthusiastic and specialist producers who passionately wish to remain in dairying.