Thus, in Turkish, the subject of the intransitive in (35a) corresponds to the accusative in the derived causative of (35b), and the subject of the transitive in (35c) corresponds to the dative
of (35d), with the identity of the accusative being constant between the two constructions; but causativization of the ditransitive in (35e) presents a problem for the participant-differentiating morphological resources of the language:
The distinction between the essential and the accidental can display itself only to a dative
who is able to receive it, just as the "middle" in a situation calling for action can display itself, by distinguishing itself from the excess and defect, only to an agent and a dative
who has the virtue required by the situation.
We have adopted here the following working definition of terms: direct arguments are those arguments of the verb that are unmarked or marked by nominative, accusative, ergative, absolutive or dative
In the same chapter the forms of the dative
and accusative case endings are not listed but must be inferred from the sentences used to illustrate them (presumably -k(k)u and-ai, respectively) (p.
A choice between Old English dative
and accusative accompanied with a spatial preposition, in in our example, necessarily leads to semantic consequences, and this choice seems to be left to the reader.
With respect to the linear order of participants, this alternation is equivalent to the English Dative
Alternation that has received much linguistic attention.
It is dative
Ligore Loire'in a single instance (ed.
The degree to which it is possible to distinguish these in European languages is a non-trivial problem, not to be discussed here beyond simply saying that the issues I will pose for EPCs may apply as well to the constructions Shibatani discusses, including ethical datives
and perhaps adversative passives as well.
The order of relative frequency of nominal case forms represented among noun and adjective amreditas in the Rigveda is: locative (29 forms, 64x + 1 repetition), accusative (32 forms, 59x + 3 repetitions), (7) dative
(4 forms, 54x), (8) genitive (10 forms, 13x), instrumental (8 forms, 9x), nominative (7 forms, 7x + 1 repetition), (9) and ablative (4 forms, 4x).
Proto-Mayan once contained the applicative suffix *-b'e that promoted datives
, benefactives, possessors, instruments, locatives and other oblique arguments to primary objects.
Other double involvements are conceivable, and in Hole (2005) I argue that so-called beneficiary datives
should really be analyzed as affectees which "bind" a variable in a purposive constituent inside VP (with "binding" again taken in the sense of the combined effect of an abstraction rule as in [32b] and variable identification as in [32c]/).
The three major types of free datives
of winch I am aware are the Beneficiary, the Concerned, and the dativus ethicus (see Abraham 1973; Leclere 1979; Herslund 1988; Belle and Langendonck 1996; Langendonck and Belle 1999).