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see inflectioninflection,
in grammar. In many languages, words or parts of words are arranged in formally similar sets consisting of a root, or base, and various affixes. Thus walking, walks, walker have in common the root walk and the affixes -ing, -s, and -er.
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inflection of a noun, pronoun, or nonfinite verb form by case. Case meanings are expressed in all languages, but not all languages have declensions. In languages with declensions, case meanings acquire a regular morphological expression—as part of a word form—that is obligatory for all or most words. Languages also have certain indeclinable words, such as pal’to (“overcoat”), Dante (“Dante”), and Chili (“Chile”) in Russian.

The grammatical content of declension varies with the morphological type of a language. In inflected languages, case inflections express not only case meaning but also the grammatical category of number; the grammatical category of gender is often expressed as well. For example, the ending -ōrum in the Latin word librōrum (“of books”) combines the meanings of genitive case, plural number, and masculine gender. In agglutinative languages, case markers express only case meanings. The declensional system in many languages is not uniform even for a particular part of speech.

Indo-European languages have several types of nominal declensions, which depend on characteristics of the stem. In the comparative historical grammar of the Indo-European languages, and especially the Slavic languages, the declensional type is determined by the characteristics of vocalic and consonantal stems: a-stem, o-stem, n-stem, s-stem, and so on. Declensions can also be differentiated according to the forms of certain principal cases. In Latin, for example, declensions are distinguished according to forms of the genitive singular, the first declension having -ae, the second declension having -ī, and so forth. Certain groups of words belong to a mixed declension, in which paradigms of various declensions are combined.

In the course of time, a declensional system may be simplified and made regular. In Russian, for example, the rich older system of substantival declension was replaced by a system of three basic types—called the first, second, and third declensions—whose differentiation is related to gender distinctions and for which the principal form is that of the nominative singular: dom (“house,” first declension), voda (“water,” second declension), and noch’ (“night,” third declension).

In certain languages, declension has been lost entirely. It may be noted that the system collapses more rapidly for nouns than for pronouns. In English and French, for example, nouns are not declined, whereas pronouns have preserved two case forms, one combining the functions of various oblique cases, as with the English “I” and “me” and the French je and me. The loss of declension reflects the development in a language of analytic means for expressing grammatical meanings, as a result of which the role of case inflections is taken over by prepositions, articles, and other auxiliary words.


Meillet, A. Vvedenie v sravnitel’noe izuchenie indoevropeiskikh iazykov, 3rd ed. Moscow-Leningrad, 1938. (Translated from French.)
Zalizniak, A. A. Russkoe imennoe slovoizmenenie. Moscow, 1967.
Vinogradov, V. V. Russkii iazyk, 2nd ed. Moscow, 1973.


References in periodicals archive ?
It is traditional to organize the Estonian declensional system into a set of major declension classes, which are further subdivided into minor 'word types'.
Over the declensional system as a whole, two contrasts stand out as being of particular predictive, and, hence, classificatory value.
General properties, such as prosodic structure, partition the declensional system and predict aspects of a nominal's paradigm.
The exceptionless analogical patterns and invariant endings in table 3 entail that semantic case forms are completely determined by the principal parts of a nominal, so that variation within the declensional system is confined to the grammatical cases.
Although alternations between strong and weak forms provide a useful cue for nouns that exhibit gradation, this cue is too narrowly distributed to provide a classification of declensional classes or types in general, because the majority of nominal types do not exhibit gradation.
The diagnostic value of the nominative singular does not of course diminish the value of the partitive and genitive singular forms, but contributes to the robustness of the declensional system, by providing another highly frequent cue for class membership.
The i-declension, which included all nouns containing a thematic *-i- vowel, was one of the most numerous declensional types in Germanic.
a ending is assumed to represent a Germanic formation in heavy syllable stems, however, in light-syllable stems it can be traced back to the combined influence of the long-stem paradigm and other declensional types (Campbell 1959: 241).
One of the features of the i-declension, significant when it comes to investigating the restructuring pattern within this declensional type, is the remarkable heterogeneity of its etymological constitution.
Given that genetic uniformity essentially encourages the internal stability of a paradigm, its lack can be viewed as a factor motivating the morphological reorganisation in this declensional type.
As has already been observed, the influence of the strong productive declension upon other declensional types may have begun as early as prehistoric times.
The two mentioned declensional types, though most significant, were not the only absorbents of i-stems, as some low-scale migration to the weak declensional type can be observed as well.