Decontamination

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decontamination

[dē·kən‚tam·ə′nā·shən]
(engineering)
The removing of chemical, biological, or radiological contamination from, or the neutralizing of it on, a person, object, or area.

Decontamination

 

the removal (destruction, neutralization) of toxic chemical agents from contaminated weapons, combat materiel, terrain, clothing, and food supplies; it is one of the measures for eliminating the aftereffects of an enemy chemical attack.

Decontamination of contaminated weapons and combat and other materiel is implemented by various mechanical methods using decontaminating solutions and solvents or by vaporizing the toxic chemical agents using hot gases. Terrain is decontaminated with the aid of decontamination machines (the irrigating of the terrain with decontaminating solutions or the spreading of friable decontaminating agents) or in certain cases by removing the upper layer of soil (or snow) with the aid of road machines, by isolating the contaminated surface of the terrain by covering it over with uncontaminated earth (or snow), or by laying wooden planks or other kinds of flooring. In the case of hard surfaces (asphalt, concrete) toxic chemical agents are removed by a stream of water from irrigating or fire-fighting machinery. Decontamination of outer clothing and underwear is carried out by boiling them in water or aqueous soda solutions or by treating them with decontaminating solutions. Contaminated water is decontaminated by chlorination, filtration through special substances, or boiling. Food supplies and forage heavily contaminated (saturated) with toxic chemical agents are destroyed. Products in hermetically sealed metal cans or glass bottles are decontaminated by boiling in a soda solution or by wiping them with decontaminating solutions or solvents; wooden containers are treated by airing them. The suitability for use of various foodstuffs is determined by chemical analysis. Ventilation (drafts) is used to decontaminate premises contaminated with gases or vapors from toxic chemical agents.

A. P. SHALIAPIN


Decontamination

 

removal of radioactive materials from uniforms (clothing), weapons, materiel, transportation, food supplies, terrain, and other objects; one of the measures for eliminating the effects of enemy use of nuclear weaponry. Decontamination may be either partial or complete.

Partial decontamination is implemented when the combat situation requires the immediate use (expenditure) of the contaminated weaponry or materiel, in order to decrease the extent of its contamination to some degree. Materiel and transportation equipment are decontaminated with special machines and instruments using scouring solutions or water; uniforms (clothing) are decontaminated by various mechanical methods; supplies are decontaminated by washing with water or by removing the contaminated layer. Water is decontaminated by using special filtration devices.

Complete decontamination by special equipment makes it possible to decrease the contamination to such a level that external irradiation and the probability of illness resulting from contact of radioactive materials with the skin or in the body become minimal. Completeness of the decontamination is checked by radiometers.

B. I. KOLOTUSHKIN

References in periodicals archive ?
The system is able to decontaminate four tanks, six wheeled vehicles or a small aircraft within one hour as well as 20 personnel with their clothing and 'sensitive' equipment.
Decontaminate hands if moving from a contaminated body site to a clean body site during resident care.
Roger Aines, a geochemist at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California, who helped develop the use of steam to decontaminate toxic waste sites, notes that steam has been used by oil companies to help extract oil from deep within the earth.
It is common to see personnel operating this station not decontaminate the scissors regularly.
Make plans to decontaminate patients of a chemical attack.
As it falls on an elementary school zone, with a kindergarten and nursery school located nearby as well, the ward will promptly work out effective methods to decontaminate, they said.
Two fire engines, a water bowser a chemical incident unit and an environmental "pod" unit were called to the business park to decontaminate the area and specialist cleaning was carried out.
The company, which tested dynamite, missiles and small rockets on some 996 acres off Soledad Canyon Road for nearly 50 years, until its closing in 1987, has offered more than $500,000 to decontaminate the well.
Under ideal conditions, 1 gram of enzyme can decontaminate up to 10 pounds of toxic nerve agent in 10 minutes.
Non-toxic/environmentally friendly technologies to decontaminate biological agents
GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy (GEH) today announced the first North American implementation of the newest chemical decontamination solution which was utilized to successfully decontaminate and mitigate stress corrosion cracking in portions of a nuclear power plants recirculation piping.