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Theoretical approaches to the deformation energy can be divided into two categories; Dynamic calculations to find the shape of the ground state (or even of excited states) and static calculations by determining the absolute minimum (ground state) or multiple minima (shape isomers) in the potential energy surface (PES) for a given nucleus.
When a polymer melt is extruded through a die, it will consume large amount of deformation energy in the entry flow, tube flow, and exit flow owing to its viscoelasticity and flow velocity rearrangement and will generate obvious pressure losses.
In the paper are presented in comparison parameters can be obtained by Martens hardness, such as hardness layer, elasticity modulus En-, mechanical work of deformation and the ratio of elastic deformation energy and the plastic.
In the loading/unloading curves, the area encolosed by the loading curve represents the total deformation energy end they enclosed by the unloading curve is the elastic deformation energy.
The second portions are more susceptible to deformation energy than the first portions and are sized to form heads that overhang sides of the first portions for releasable engagement with a loop product, when deformed.
The elasticity component describes the elastic behavior of the material, while the loss modulus describes which part of the deformation energy is transferred into heat.
Thus, the storage and dissipation of deformation energy in the melt flow will increase at an increasing flow rate at a given temperature.
def] is heat generation rate due to plastic deformation, [eta] is the efficiency of conversion of deformation energy to heat, [bar.
It can then be assumed that the factors influencing the process of wear are the deformation energy needed to cause the tear and the size of the ceramic tool (in real life the sharp edges of stones and terrain irregularities), which is determining for the size of deformed microareas and particles which are torn away.