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Removal of hydrogen from a compound.


A reaction in which hydrogen is detached from a molecule. The reaction is strongly endothermic, and therefore heat must be supplied to maintain the reaction temperature. When the detached hydrogen is immediately oxidized, two benefits accrue: (1) the conversion of reactants to products is increased because the equilibrium concentration is shifted toward the products (law of mass action); and (2) the added exothermic oxidation reaction supplies the needed heat of reaction. This process is called oxidative dehydrogenation. On the other hand, excess hydrogen is sometimes added to a dehydrogenation reaction in order to diminish the complete breakup of the molecule into many fragments.

The primary types of dehydrogenation reactions are vapor-phase conversion of primary alcohols to aldehydes, vapor-phase conversion of secondary alcohols to ketones, dehydrogenation of a side chain, and catalytic reforming of naphthas and naphthenes in the presence of a platinum catalyst. All four of these types of dehydrogenation reactions are of major industrial importance. They account for the production of billions of pounds of organic compounds that enter into the manufacture of lubricants, explosives, plastics, plasticizers, and elastomers.

References in periodicals archive ?
The ideal method of producing O-phenylphenol is using the cyclohexanone dehydrogenate condensation process, by which the product has high purity and wide application range.
Their hypothesis was to dehydrogenate ethanol to acetaldehyde on the first bed and to chemisorb the impurities at low temperature with a chemisorbent coupled with a hydrogen yielding catalyst on the second bed.
The radical containing ethyne then reacts with other gases, such as butadiene, to form cyclic intermediates containing free radical sites, and these cyclic intermediates containing radicals are able to propagate polymerization and dehydrogenate saturated compounds that are still present in the intermediate.