deism

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deism

belief in the existence of God based solely on natural reason, without reference to revelation

Deism

 

a religious and philosophical view widespread during the Enlightenment. According to this view, god, having created the world, takes no more part in it and does not intervene in the natural course of events. Thus, deism is opposed not only to theism, with its fundamental notion of divine providence and the continuous relationship between man and god, but to pantheism, which mingles god in nature, and to atheism as well, which in general denies the very existence of god. Deism appeared with the idea of natural religion, or the religion of reason, which was in opposition to revealed religion. Natural religion, according to the teachings of the deists, is common to all men and represents the norm for all positive religions, including Christianity.

Deism developed first in Great Britain. The father of English deism is considered to be a 17th-century English philosopher, Lord Herbert of Cherbury, who developed the concept of a religion of reason (Treatise on Truth, 1624). Thinkers of diverse schools—both idealists and materialists—adhered to this philosophy, deism being for the latter, in Marx’ words, “no more than a convenient and easy way of getting rid of religion” (K. Marx and F. Engels, Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 2, p. 144). Deism reached the highest point in its development in the first half of the 18th century. British deists included J. Toland, who saw nothing in Christianity but moral teaching; A. Collins; M. Tindal; A. Shaftesbury; and H. Bolingbroke. In America, T. Jefferson, B. Franklin, E. Allen, and T. Paine were prominent deists. J. Locke’s position was near that of the deists. The view expressed by D. Hume in his Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion (1779) that religion springs from fear and hope made the assumption of an inactive creator-god unnecessary. Voltaire propagated the ideas of deism in France, whereas J.-J. Rousseau came close to the deist philosophy. The French materialists of the 18th century criticized deism. In Germany deism spread on the soil of philosophical rationalism (G. W. von Leibniz and G. E. Lessing). The ideas of deism were interpreted in an original way in I. Kant’s work Religion Within the Bounds of Pure Reason (1793; Russian translation, 1908). In the late 18th and early 19th century deism spread among progressive Russian thinkers (I. P. Pnin, I. D. Ertov, A. S. Lubkin, and some of the Decembrists). On the whole deism played a positive role in the development of free thought in the 17th and 18th centuries; later, it lost its progressive significance.

In contemporary bourgeois philosophy deism does not have independent significance, but it is adhered to by many scientists, who see in the regularity and orderliness of the world proof of the existence of a creator.

REFERENCES

Marx, K., and F. Engels. Izbr. proizv., vol. 2. Moscow, 1952. Pages 97–99.
[Orbinskii, R. V.] “Angliiskie deisty 17 i 18 stoletii.” Zapiski Novorossiiskogo un-ta, 1868, year 2, vol. 3, issue 1.
Rogovin, S. M. Deizm i David Ium: Analiz “Dialogov o estestvennoi religii.” Moscow, 1908.
Voronitsyn, I. P. Istoriia ateizma, 3rd ed. [Riazan, 1930.]
Lechler, G. V. Geschichte des englischen Deismus. Stuttgart, 1841.
Sayous, E. Les Déistes anglais et le christianisme … (1696–1738). Paris, 1882.
Torrey, N. L. Voltaire and the English Deists. New Haven-Oxford, 1930.
Orr, J. English Deism: Its Roots and Fruits. Grand Rapids, Mich., 1934.
Schlegel, D. B. Shaftesbury and the French Deists. Chapel Hill, 1956.
References in periodicals archive ?
From such considerations, Kant grounds the regulative use of the idea of--but not the actual existence of--his deistic God, (25) which is regarded as if He could be considered the Creator.
Between this modern "metal face of the age" and a resilient, eighteenth-century deistic rationalism, Cold Mountain contests culturally bankrupt constructions of race, gender, and class.
When we apply it now, the term anthropological fetishism is used to describe behavior in which there is a seemingly "sacred relationship" between the individual and the object fetishized, in which objects appear to have deistic qualities for the fetishist.
Some have suggested that the Founding Fathers used the term "Providence" as an impersonal term for a deistic god who is not involved in human affairs, but in fact its meaning is the opposite.
Also conversely, Leibniz emphasized the necessity of finite monads and based them upon a substratum of Deistic infinitude.
There are many theories that try to explain the relationship between Creator and creation, from a deistic distancing to a pantheistic amalgamation.
Citing such deistic writers as Thomas Burnet and Giambattista Vico--both of whom lived centuries before Darwin--the sociologist writes that "there is a struggle between thinkers with complex, many-leveled agendas" that cannot be reduced to a simple conflict between science and religion.
Self-directing religious coping: A deistic God, an abandoning God, or no God at all?
in 18th-century French literature at Columbia University at an undisclosed date, Spirn demonstrates how deistic prayer played a significant role during a period generally thought to epitomize anti-religious rationalism.
In comparing Landor's unorthodox views to Thomas Paine's deistic interpretation of the bible, the second half argues that Landor's appeal to Islamic-hermetic humanism in the 1803 edition of Gebir is, in effect, an attempt to forge a revolutionary, anti-colonial politics.
If one lives in a cruel deistic culture, the denial of God, at least formally defined and affirmed, may be imperative for spirituality.
Beckett, like most major 'artists, is a poetic extremist: the plights of Vladimir and Estragon, of Hamm and Clov, of Winnie and Willie, are surreal intensifications of the common human plight in a world where deistic values are no longer operative as defense or attack.