Denaturalization

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Denaturalization

 

in economics, the restoration of commodity-money relationships in an economy. Under socialism it may cover relations among sectors of the national economy, between the state and enterprises, and between the state and the population.

In the USSR an extensive denaturalization of economic relations was carried out during the transition to the New Economic Policy (NEP). The methods of “war communism,” which were based on naturalization of economic relations (including maximum centralization of national economic management, abolition of trade and its replacement by organized state distribution of the main industrial and food products according to social class affiliation, and institution of a rationing system for supply to the population), were forced and temporary. Under peacetime conditions they were incompatible with economic growth. Beginning in 1921 measures were carried out to develop commodity-money relations, employ material incentives, and introduce profit-and-loss accountability. The substitution of a tax in kind for the surplus-appropriation system made it possible to straighten out commodity relations between industry and agriculture. State enterprises were taken off budget financing and switched to the profit-and-loss accountability system, and in this way commodity-money relations among enterprises and between enterprises and the state were restored. Monetary taxes were gradually restored. In 1924 taxes in kind were completely replaced by monetary taxes. Steps were taken to put monetary circulation in order, restore credit relations, and ensure that state budgets were carried out without deficit.

In the 1950’s certain measures aimed at partial denaturalization were taken. For example, in connection with the reorganization of the machine and tractor stations in 1958, deliveries in kind were abolished; the transition was made to a monetary form of payment for labor at kolkhozes.

T. V. GUIDA

References in periodicals archive ?
42] The character Tommy Velour denaturalizes gender in a particularly feminist way.
Thus, like Christina Rossetti's tale of Lizzie Siddal, Michael Field's own rendering of Mona Lisa, and Mulvey's commentary a century later, "A Portrait" makes observable and denaturalizes the disturbing history of female voices silenced and female beauty appropriated by the power of a patriarchal gaze.
46) In keeping with this goal, in 1939 when Jews were attempting to escape from the Third Reich, Laughlin recommended not only a reduction in immigrant quotas (47) but procedures to denaturalize and deport some immigrants who had obtained citizenship, (48) singling out Jews as a group "slow to assimilate.
The work of this essay is to denaturalize or de-universalize (render local) the tradition of reading Emerson from Parrington to the present.
a strategy to denaturalize the disciplinary regime of the normal that
In exposing the particularity of biocentrism as a fact of whiteness, my objective is not to denounce the necessity for environmental action, but rather to "see" the whiteness of Euro-North American environmentalists as a factor in the effort to denaturalize and make strange their prescriptive authority.
Canada is currently trying to denaturalize and deport eight people alleged to be Nazi criminals.
Perhaps it is not the task of love poetry to deconstruct or denaturalize love; nevertheless, I register here a small misgiving about the subliminal sexual politics of this book.
This splendid reading closes out a book that in its breadth of knowledge, subtlety of analysis, and clarity of expression goes far beyond providing a useful introduction to contemporary Argentine cinema to show how specific films, instead of undertaking to protect private autonomy from the public sphere and the state, "have often worked to denaturalize the discourses and practices of neoliberal capitalism and thereby to support the activity of a public sphere" (200).
Brady's theory of the "labor" of the border is exemplified in the way that Moraga and Viramontes denaturalize such violent, racialized ideologies about Chicana and Chicano subjectivity to render visible the exploitative labor of Chicanas.
Intended to denaturalize segregation and provide imagined alternatives to the existing social order, Hansberry s genuine realism profoundly shaped her revision of the final scenes of A Raisin in the Sun.
One way in which to denaturalize age-based categories is to draw attention to contradiction and variation in how they are constructed, as I do here.