denaturation


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denaturation,

term used to describe the loss of native, higher-order structure of proteinprotein,
any of the group of highly complex organic compounds found in all living cells and comprising the most abundant class of all biological molecules. Protein comprises approximately 50% of cellular dry weight.
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 molecules in solution. Most globular proteins exhibit complicated three-dimensional folding described as secondary, tertiary, and quarternary structures. These conformations of the protein molecule are rather fragile, and any factor that alters the precise geometry is said to cause denaturation. Extensive unfolding sometimes causes precipitation of the protein from solution. Denaturation is defined as a major change from the original native state without alteration of the molecule's primary structure, i.e., without cleavage of any of the primary chemical bonds that link one amino acid to another. Treatment of proteins with strong acids or bases, high concentrations of inorganic salts or organic solvents (e.g., alcohol or chloroform), heat, or irradiation all produce denaturation to a variable degree. Loss of three-dimmensional structure usually produces a loss of biological activity. Thus, the denatured enzymeenzyme,
biological catalyst. The term enzyme comes from zymosis, the Greek word for fermentation, a process accomplished by yeast cells and long known to the brewing industry, which occupied the attention of many 19th-century chemists.
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 is often without catalytic function. Renaturation is accomplished with varying success, and occasionally with a return of biological function, by exposing the denatured protein to a solution that approximates normal physiological conditions. Denaturation may be studied in the laboratory in any number of ways that monitor the physical properties of protein. Thus measurements of changing viscosity, density, light-scattering ability, and movement in an electrical field all record slight changes in molecular architecture. Denaturing is also used to describe the unrelated process of adding a poisonous substance to ethanolethanol
or ethyl alcohol,
CH3CH2OH, a colorless liquid with characteristic odor and taste; commonly called grain alcohol or simply alcohol. Properties

Ethanol is a monohydric primary alcohol. It melts at −117.
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 to make it unsuitable for human consumption.
References in periodicals archive ?
The reaction profiles for both genes consisted of initial denaturation at 94AdegC for 5 min followed by 35 cycles of denaturation at 94AdegC for 30 seconds, annealing at 55AdegC for 40 sec and extensiton at 72AdegC for 50 seconds, and final elongation at 72AdegC for 8 min.
PCR programmed with initial denaturation at 94degC for 60s, followed by 35 cycles of denaturation at 94degC for 30s, annealing at 60degC for 1 min, and extension at 72degC for 1 min.
lukF and lukS genes: an initial denaturation step at 94degC for 5min, followed by 35 cycles with denaturation at 94degC for 1min, annealing at 57degC for 1min and extension at 72degC for 1min.
Muscle pH reflects the rate of postmortem metabolism and influences the degree of protein denaturation [24].
Without the use of cryoprotectants, most muscles lose functionality when frozen because of protein denaturation and/or aggregation (Garcia-Sanchez et al.
The denaturation of what McKibben calls 'natural processes (rain, wind, heat)' is especially apparent in the ways many of us now experience weather.
Kinetics and thermodynamics for irreversible thermal denaturation of MnP was determined by incubating the enzyme in phosphate buffer (pH 6.
Finally, denaturation "is so fast that it is hard to measure and does not require any chemistry modification.
Amplification was carried out using a 10 minute denaturation at 95[degrees]C followed by 55 cycles of denaturation at 95[degrees]C for 15 s, annealing and extension at 60[degrees]C for 60s.
The reaction proceeds by repeatedly cycling the reaction temperature between denaturation (95[degrees]-99[degrees]C) and a lower temperature suitable for sequence specific annealing and DNA ligase activity (depending on sequence composition and length of the primers, but generally in the 50[degrees]-60[degrees]C range).
For rrs, initial denaturation was at 95[degrees]C for 1 min, followed by 45 cycles of denaturation at 95[degrees]C for 30 s, annealing at 56[degrees]C for 30 s, and elongation at 68[degrees]C for 90 s for PCR and 70 s for nPCR, and then by a final extension step at 72[degrees]C for 7 min.
in neurosicence, after all - that is most basically described as her "enzymatic follicle denaturation theory.