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expulsion of an alienalien,
in law, any person residing in one political community while owing allegiance to another. A procedure known as naturalization permits aliens to become citizens.

Each nation establishes conditions upon which aliens will be admitted, and makes laws concerning them.
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 from a country by an act of its government. The term is not applied ordinarily to sending a national into exileexile,
removal of a national from his or her country, or the civilized parts of it, for a long period of time or for life. Exile may be a forceful expulsion by the government or a voluntary removal by the citizen, sometimes in order to escape punishment.
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 or to committing one convicted of crime to an overseas penal colony (historically called transportation). In international law the right to send an alien to the country to which he or she owes allegiance (or to any country that will accept him or her) derives from a government's sovereigntysovereignty,
supreme authority in a political community. The concept of sovereignty has had a long history of development, and it may be said that every political theorist since Plato has dealt with the notion in some manner, although not always explicitly.
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. In the United States, deportation is the responsibility of the Bureau of Immigration and Customs Enforcement of the Dept. of Homeland Security.

Except under the Alien and Sedition ActsAlien and Sedition Acts,
1798, four laws enacted by the Federalist-controlled U.S. Congress, allegedly in response to the hostile actions of the French Revolutionary government on the seas and in the councils of diplomacy (see XYZ Affair), but actually designed to destroy Thomas
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 of 1798 there was no American deportation law until the enactment in 1882 of a statute aimed at certain Chinese immigrants. The class of deportable aliens was subsequently enlarged several times, coming to include persons who before their entry into the United States were insane, feeble-minded, illiterate, or diseased in various ways. Many foreigners suspected of involvement in radical political activity were deported during the "Red Scare" of 1919. The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 removed the statute of limitations on any kind of deportation.

The largest group of deported persons are those who have entered the country illegally. In the 1980s and 1990s expulsion of some of the numerous refugees from such Caribbean countries as Cuba and Haiti raised controversy. A deported alien cannot reenter the United States without special permission from the attorney general.



(also banishment, exile), in law, specific kinds of exile employed in the 18th and 19th centuries in accordance with French criminal laws.

The first deportation of politically unreliable people to Guiana was established by the 1791 law on suspicious people. Deportation for terms up to life was included in the French Criminal Code of 1810. A law of Mar. 23, 1872, defined exile as spending one’s life outside the boundaries of a continent in designated deportation areas. It provided for the establishment of a central deportation camp on the island of Nou and a fortified area (a fortress) on the Ducos Peninsula (New Caledonia). Deportation was used not only against recidivistic criminals but also as a reprisal against revolutionaries (in 1872 captured Communards were sent to islands in New Caledonia).

Deportation should be distinguished from other forms of exile used in France—transportation (forced labor with exile to Guiana or another French territory abroad) and relegation (a supplementary punishment in the form of exile, used for dangerous recidivists after they had served their terms in prisons of metropolitan France). Deportation has not been used since 1880.


1. the act of expelling an alien from a country; expulsion
2. the act of transporting someone from his country; banishment
References in periodicals archive ?
In a statement after they met to say goodbye Sunday, al-Maliki said UN envoy Ad Melkert affirmed UN support on many matters, "including the issue of Camp Ashraf and the necessity of implementing the cabinet's decree to deport its residents outside Iraq by the end of this year.
At the same time, there has been a small uptick in views that the government should deport all illegal immigrants.
Similarly, the INS now must deport non-citizen residents if they have the wrong opinions.
Employers in Maesot have been pressuring the government not to deport the illegal immigrants because they are needed to maintain the low cost of production.
To soothe the fears, the INS opened 107 new offices that only process applications for amnesty; this keeps applicants from having to deal with the same agents who may have been trying to deport them.
Government sources admit Saudi Arabia is wary of deporting Fasih because its move to deport 26/ 11 key player Abu Jundal to India earlier this year had put the Gulf country in a spot.
Answering an urgent question in the Commons, Theresa May insisted the bail conditions would be very strict and the Government wanted to deport Qatada before the bail expired in three months.
A FATHER has hit out at the decision to block a legal bid to deport a failed asylum seeker who killed his daughter.
Iran refuses to take him--and five others that Canada wants to deport.
Summary: BEIRUT: An attempt on Monday by General Security to forcibly deport an Iraqi refugee was called off at the very last minute, according to human rights workers.
Years ago Britain used to deport criminals to Australia; now in 2008 Australia is deporting one of their own criminals to Britain.
News of her death has reignited the controversy surrounding the decision to deport the mother in the first place.