The scheme allows savers to invest a lump sum of between pounds 2,700 and pounds 4,320 into a Liverpool Victoria deposit feeder
account, which drip feeds the maximum annual premium into the friendly society's tax exempt savings plan.
The biomass of deposit feeders had clearly increased in areas adjacent to stronger oil loads (Fig.
Thus, our hypotheses held true for deposit feeders and herbivores but not for suspension feeders.
Benthic deposit feeders are likely to gain due to the increase of organic matter in the system (Elmgren et al.
Our specific aim was to evaluate whether the biomasses of ephemeral macroalgae, deposit feeders, suspension feeders, herbivores, and carnivores were stimulated by the elevated load of nutrients in the north-eastern Baltic Sea.
Invertebrates were grouped according to their feeding type on the basis of literature and field observations as follows: herbivores, deposit feeders, suspension feeders, and carnivores (Bonsdorff and Pearson, 1999).
Increasing nutrient loads enhance the production of benthic and/or pelagic microalgae (Graneli and Sundback 1985; Howarth, 1988) and, hence, increase the amount of available food for benthic grazers, suspension feeders, and deposit feeders and ultimately for carnivores.
In addition, the proportion of filter feeders increased (from 23% to 33%) at the expense of deposit feeders (down from 71% to 55%).
Research during the Port Phillip Bay Environmental Study found that burrows dug by one particular group of deposit feeders alone, the Callianassids, or ghost shrimps, increased the water-sediment interface by at least 8%.
4), with an average coefficient of variation across stations that was over 50% greater than that for deposit feeders (P[less than]0.
Feeding modes of species within esturaine systems also are reported to respond to environmental gradients, with deposit feeders replacing suspension feeding in areas of Low flushing and finer sediments (Sanders 1958; Franz 1976; Pearson and Rosenberg 1978).
Moreover, the feeding activities of macrobenthic deposit feeders
(animals that feed by ingesting sediment) can alter the abundance, metabolic activity and composition of the microbial community (Hargrave, 1970; Morrison and White, 1980; Bianchi and Levinton, 1981), which in turn can be linked (through nutrient cycling, for example) with density-dependent consumer effects on resource quality and supply.