R]) and UV spectra (190-400 nm) of the main peaks with those of reference substances previously isolated from lichens confirmed that the methanol extract of Cetraria islandica contains the depsidone
fumarprotocetraric acid ([t.
A novel depsidone
and some new xanthones from Garcinia species.
caperata) and depsidone
salazinic acid (other two species).
The in vitro antimicrobial activities of pannarin, a depsidone
isolated from lichens, collected in several Southern regions of Chile (including Antarctica), was evaluated alone and in combination with five therapeutically available antibiotics, using checkerboard microdilution assay against methicillin-resistant clinical isolates strains of Staphylococcus aureus.
The salazinic acid (8) a depsidone
with lactol ring, was also weakly active against M.
Atrovirisidone B a new prenylated depsidone
with cytotoxic property from the roots of Garcinia atroviridis.
lobaric acid (1), a [beta]-orcinol depsidone
from Stereocaulon alpinum L.
Most known lichen substances are phenolic compounds, anthraquinones, dibenzofurans, depsides, depsidones
, depsones, gamma lactones and pulvinic acid derivatives.
Chemotaxonomic studies have shown that the most unique lichen metabolites belong to the chemical classes of depsides, depsidones
Botryorhodines A-D, antifungal and cytotoxic depsidones
from Botryosphaeria rhodina, an endophyte of the medicinal plant Bidens pilosa.
Several lichen metabolites of various chemical classes, including the aliphatic acids, depsides and depsidones
, dibenzofurans, diterpenes, anthraquinones, naphthoquinones, usnic acids, pulvinic acids, xanthones, and epidithiopiperazinediones have been reported with various biological activities such as cytotoxic, fungicidal, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory (Muller 2001).
Depsides and depsidones
as inhibitors HIV-1 intagrase: discovery of novel inhibitors through 3D database searching.