melanoma

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melanoma:

see skin cancerskin cancer,
malignant tumor of the skin. The most common types of skin cancer are basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma. Rarer forms include mycosis fungoides (a type of lymphoma) and Kaposi's sarcoma.
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Melanoma

 

melanoblastoma; a malignant tumor that consists of melanin-producing cells.

Factors conducive to the development of melanomas include injury and hormonal stimulation, especially during puberty. Melanomas generally occur on the skin; less often, they appear on the retina, pia mater, nasopharynx, larynx, esophagus, and mucosa of the intestine and other organs. Melanomas usually develop at the site of pigmented or depigmented birthmarks, but they may also appear elsewhere. The process starts with a barely perceptible, painless tumor on the skin, sometimes resembling a wart, which gradually becomes dark brown or black. Occasionally, it ulcerates and bleeds. In case of injury, the tumor may enlarge quickly and become tuberous, dense at the base, and stiffer. The regional lymph nodes enlarge. The initial signs that a melanoma is developing at the site of a birthmark are the birthmark’s enlargement, an intensification or reduction in its pigmentation, and the appearance of a red rim around it. Treatment involves prompt surgical intervention, based on early diagnosis, and the use of radiotherapy and drugs to retard the growth and reproduction of the cells.

I. IA. SHAKHTMEISTER

melanoma

[mel·ə′nō·mə]
(medicine)
A malignant tumor composed of anaplastic melanocytes.
A benign or malignant tumor composed of melanocytes.

melanoma

Pathol a malignant tumour composed of melanocytes, occurring esp in the skin, often as a result of excessive exposure to sunlight
References in periodicals archive ?
The pathology unit reported that the tumor represented a second recurrence of the desmoplastic melanoma.
Two of the less common subtypes of malignant melanoma are desmoplastic melanoma and conventional melanoma arising in mucosa.
Microphthalmia transcription factor: not a sensitive or specific marker for the diagnosis of desmoplastic melanoma and spindle cell (non-desmoplastic) melanoma.
Evidence that the p75 neurotrophin receptor mediates perineural spread of desmoplastic melanoma.
129) We have also detected tyrosinase protein expression in selected cases of desmoplastic melanoma.
dagger]) RGP indicates radial growth phase; VGP, vertical growth phase; SSM, superficial spreading melanoma; LMM, lentigo maligna melanoma; ALM, acral lentiginous melanoma; NM, nodular melanoma; and DM, desmoplastic melanoma.
Diagnostic Category) Subset Abnormal RREB1 MelanoSITE Spitzoid tumor 51 (36) 14 (28) 4 (1) Favor benign 18 (35) 2 (11) 1 (1) Borderline 28 (55) 8 (29) 3 (1) Favor 5 (10) 4 (80) 1 (1) melanoma Atypical nevus 54 (39) 14 (26) 3 (2) versus nevoid melanoma Favor benign 32 (59) 4 (b) (13) 2 (1) Borderline 15 (28) 8 (53) 4 (2) Favor 7 (13) 2 (29) 1 (1) melanoma Dysplastic 33 (24) 10 (30) 8 (4) nevus versus melanoma Favor benign 16 (49) 1 (6) 1 (1) Borderline 4 (12) 2 (50) 2 (0) Favor 13 (39) 7 (54) 5 (3) melanoma Suspected 2 (1) 1 (50) 0 (0) desmoplastic melanoma Total 140 (100) 39 (28) 15 (7) Histologic MelanoSITE Results, Category/ No.
9,10) Chen et al (11) generated a monoclonal antibody against Melan-A in 1996, which is a relatively sensitive and specific marker for benign and malignant melanocytes, except those of desmoplastic melanomas.
Another marker that may be helpful in distinguishing desmoplastic nevus from desmoplastic melanoma is MART1.
31) Histologic differential diagnosis of sclerosing BN includes desmoplastic melanoma, dermatofibroma, and other fibroblastic proliferations including scars.
Immunoprofiles of Similar Spindle Cell Neoplasms Tumor Type Myogenin Desmin SMA SC-RMS ++ ++ +/- Leiomyosarcoma - +/- ++ Low-grade myofibroblastic - +/- + sarcoma Fibrosarcoma - - +/- Malignant peripheral - - - nerve sheath tumor with rhabdomyoblastic differentiation Desmoplastic melanoma - - +/-- Tumor Type H-caldesmon S100 GFAP SC-RMS - - - Leiomyosarcoma +/- - +/-- Low-grade myofibroblastic - - - sarcoma Fibrosarcoma - - +/- Malignant peripheral - +/- - nerve sheath tumor with rhabdomyoblastic differentiation Desmoplastic melanoma - ++ +/- Abbreviations: GFAP, glial fibrillary acidic protein; SC-RMS, spindle cell rhabdomyosarcoma; SMA, smooth muscle actin; +, positive; ++, strongly positive; +/-, occasionally positive; +/--, occasionally positive, more often negative; -, negative.
For instance, with the current criteria, melanoma FISH results are negative in 50% of desmoplastic melanomas.